Timelines

The Timelines

This Timelines Project is part of another collaborative effort related to historical issues as they relate to “political” blow-back. We will update this page as soon as we receive new data. Please note that this is a rather long page and will take some time before we can divide it down into periods, centuries, decades and events. If anyone is interested in participating please let us know.  Considering our history is so tightly tied to the of the UK, we began this timeline with 1066 AD.

Please remember, information is a contact sport, like hockey, so feel free to add contributions and relevant information as a comment below and/or Contact us if you would like to contribute to our collaborative efforts in any way, or if you would like to share/submit articles, data or additional content…

Backgrounder: The Timelines

Timeline Projects

In this sub-project of the #ShagTheDog Project will dissect the data and create a sequential timeline of blow-back triggers based upon the research associated with never-ending "Blowback". Research and data crunching uncovers that since the mid-late 1800's blow-back cycles are re-generated beginning with destabilization efforts and violence in Asia, Middle East and Africa to "austerity" and violence in Europe and the America's. As time progresses, smaller and more focused timelines will be created to break down the compiled data into various scenarios and periods of time.

As far as Treaties, Trade Routes and Free Trade are concerned, this is done for specific reasons, usually related to protecting and/or enhance global corporate investors interests, control markets & currencies, expand current regional labour exploitation, open new markets for exploitation, acquire access to new resources, displace inhabitants and occupy territory. At the end of the day, “Free Trade Agreements” and/or “Treaties” are “signed” on behalf of the displaced and occupied inhabitants, (Natives, Aboriginal Peoples, Clans, Tribes, Residents, Settlers, Colonists), via appointed proxies.

Cycles and trends emerge rather rapidly and several key players over the past century are always involved and the subsequent beneficiaries while the inhabitants and/or tax-payers bear the financial, emotional and physical costs.

Therefore, we feel it is necessary to include the little known, less publicized and recently declassified back-stories as well. This allows for a broader picture to emerge of how Banksters (global investors), Big Oil, Big Ore and “Governments” bankrupt “States” by utilizing War Measures, (mercenaries,terrorism,genocide,starvation), under false pretenses to restrict freedom and liberty and instill fear.

Please feel free to share and/or suggest additional details, dates, topics, events, ideas, links, info-graphics, etc. as a comment below or by email: ottawapiskat [at] live [dot] ca


Timelines

1066

1066 — 1066 is considered one of those dates in Medieval England which is difficult to forget. At the start of 1066, England was ruled by Edward the Confessor. By the end of the year, a Norman – William the Conqueror – was king after defeating Edward’s successor, Harold, at the Battle of Hastings. With three kings in one year, a legendary battle in October and a Norman in charge of England, it is little wonder that people rarely forget the year 1066. Many historians view 1066 as the start of Medieval England [1].

October 14, 1066 — The Battle of Hastings (14 October 1066) was fought between the Norman army of William the Conqueror, and the English army led by Harold Godwinson. It was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England.

1100

August 5, 1100 — Coronation Charter of Henry Ⅰ issued.

  • Henry Ⅰ's coronation charter (Hn cor) Institute of Historical Research / King's College London – This coronation charter, published on 5 August 1100 and likely circulated to every shire, announced that Henry Ⅰ had been crowned, but also listed a number of ameliorations of the law. The standard affirmed is that of the law under Edward the Confessor (1041–1065), while the laws amended are those that were in force under Henry's father, William Ⅰ (1066–1087), and brother, William Ⅱ (1087–1100). http://www.earlyenglishlaws.ac.uk/laws/texts/hn-cor/
  • CARTA LIBERTATUM (The Charter of Liberties) THE CORONATION CHARTER OF KING HENRY THE FIRST Granted August 5th AD. 1100 Based on the translation in Albert Beebe White and Wallace Notestein, eds., Source Problems in English History, Harper and Brothers, New York,1915. With reference to Douglas and Greenway, eds., English Historical Documents 1042–1189, Eyre Methuen, London, 1982 and Richard Thomson, An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta of King John, John Major, London, 1829.http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/coroncharter-1100.htm

1164

January 29, 1164 — Constitutions of Clarendon issued by Henry Ⅱ.

  • THE CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON OF KING HENRY THE SECOND Agreed January 29th AD. 1164 Based on the translation in Henderson, Ernest F. Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, George Bell and Sons, London, 1896. With reference to Albert Beebe White and Wallace Notestein, eds., Source Problems in English History , Harper and Brothers, New York, 1915.http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/constclarendon-1164.htm

1214

1214–1215 — Unknown Charter of Liberties drafted. Document from c.1214/15 which formed some part in the drafting of what became "Magna Carta". Its occasion was possibly the gathering of northern barons at Stamford. It begins with the re-affirmation of the coronation charter of Henry I. It then describes various concessions which King John offered as remedies to the grievances complained of: no arbitrary judgement, amendments to marriage and wardship law, various abuses of relief, restriction on liability for service abroad. These and other matters emerge in the final document known as Magna Carta. The original document is in the Archive Royaume in Paris. Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases. Christopher Coredon with Ann Williams.

1215

June 15, 1215 — King John (1166–1216) of England's excessive and arbitrary exploitation of his feudal rights, along with his abuse of the justice system fuelled the rebellious and powerful "Barons of England" to revolt, and was forced into affixing his seal to "The Great Charter", aka: "Magna Carta", in order to avert civil war. For King John, the Magna Carta was a practical solution to a political crisis which primarily served the interests of the highest ranks of feudal society and most of its clauses deal with specific, and often long-standing, grievances, feudal rights, customs and the administration of justice rather than with general principles of law.

King John's increasingly tyrannical rule sparked the barons' rebellion in the first place and had no intention of abiding by the Magna Carta in the future. The 'elected' group of 'twenty-five' barons refused to give the king written pledges of fealty, failured to evacuate London by a date agreed by treaty, and ignored his lawful mandates. This duplicity instigated the Barons War fought between 1215–1217.

Though it was not initially successful, the document was reissued, with alterations, in 1216, 1217 and 1225, and eventually served as the foundation for the English system of common law. Just 10 weeks later, Pope Innocent III nullified the agreement, and England plunged into internal war. The pope stood with John against the barons when they forced him to grant the Magna Carta; Innocent declared it null as exacted by force, and as a vassal’s promise made without his overlord’s approval.

  • CARTA LIBERTATUM (THE CHARTER OF LIBERTIES) OF KING JOHN Granted June 15th AD. 1215, IN THE SEVENTEENTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES OF LINCOLN CATHEDRAL BY RICHARD THOMSON, 1829http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-1215.htm
  • The Text of Magna Carta G. R. C. Davis, Magna Carta, Revised Edition, British Library, 1989.http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/magnacarta.asp
  • THE DOCUMENTS OF THE GREAT CHARTER OF 1215 BY ARTHUR JEFFERIES CQLLINS, Keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museumhttp://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/z/zsn2a047015.pdf [pdf]
  • Magna Carta: A Commentary on the Great Charter of King John, with an Historical Introduction [1215] by William Sharp McKechnie (Glasgow: Maclehose, 1914). – This is a detailed and meticulous edition of Magna Carta with each clause in the original Latin, followed by an English translation and heavily annotated by the editor. http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=338&Itemid=27
  • Treasures in full: Magna Carta The Basics The British Library Boardhttp://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics/basics.html
  • Treasures in full: Magna Carta Timeline The British Library Boardhttp://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/timeline/timeline.html
  • Magna carta commemoration essays, with a preface by the Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce…ed. by Henry Elliot Malden. Malden, Henry Elliot,, Royal Historical Society (Great Britain) [London]: Royal historical society, 1917.http://name.umdl.umich.edu/AEW8671.0001.001
  • Magna carta commemoration essays (1917) Henry Elliot Malden, Royal Historical Society (Great Britain)
    • –Magna carta celebration committee, 1914.
    • –Preface by Viscount Bryce
    • –Introduction by Henry Elliot Malden
    • –Magna carta, 1215-1915, by Prof. McKechnie
    • –Innocent III and the Charter, by Prof. G. B. Adams
    • –Barons and knights in the Great charter, by J. H. Round
    • –Clause 39, by Paul Vinogradoff
    • –Per iudicium parium vel per legem terrae, by Prof. Powicke
    • –Magna carta nd the common law, by Prof. McIlwain
    • –The influence of Magna carta on American constitutional development, by H. D. Hazeltine
    • –Magna carta and Spanish mediæval jurisprudence, by Rafael Altamira
    • –Financial records of the reign of King John, by Hilary Jenkinson

    http://archive.org/details/magnacartacommem00malduoft

  • THE COMPLETE "MAGNA CARTA" TEXTS – This charter is the important document which the rebellious barons of England forced King John to accept at Runnymede to the west of London on 13th June 1215. It is very specific dealing mainly with feudal rights, protecting women and children within the justice system and taxation. There are echoes of two earlier charters: the Coronation Charter of Henry I which addressed abuses of royal power by his predecessor, his brother William Rufus, and the Constitutions of Clarendon issued by Henry II aimed at forcing the church to submit to the law of the nation as opposed to its own ecclesiastical law. However because the baron's charter was only agreed to under duress, it was not valid legislation and the king appealed to the pope. Pope Innocent III supported his appeal, revoked the charter on 24th August of that year and later excommunicated the rebellious barons. http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-intro.htm
  • Magna Carta and Its American Legacy National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) – Before penning the Declaration of Independence–the first of the American Charters of Freedom–in 1776, the Founding Fathers searched for a historical precedent for asserting their rightful liberties from King George III and the English Parliament. They found it in a gathering that took place 561 years earlier on the plains of Runnymede, not far from where Windsor Castle stands today. There, on June 15, 1215, an assembly of barons confronted a despotic and cash-strapped King John and demanded that traditional rights be recognized, written down, confirmed with the royal seal, and sent to each of the counties to be read to all freemen. The result was Magna Carta–a momentous achievement for the English barons and, nearly six centuries later, an inspiration for angry American colonists. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/legacy.html
  • Magna Carta, 1215 Avalon Project – Medieval Documents : 400 – 1399http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp
  • Magna Carta 1215 http://www.middle-ages.org.ukhttp://www.middle-ages.org.uk/magna-carta.htm
  • Enforcers of Magna Carta (act. 1215–1216) by Matthew Strickland, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Oct 2005; online edn, May 2012 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/theme/93691, accessed ] – Enforcers of Magna Carta (act. 1215–1216) were a group of barons who stood in the forefront of the opposition to the increasingly tyrannical rule of King John, and were entrusted with the enforcement of the terms of Magna Carta, 'the great charter of liberties' as it was already known just ten years later, formally granted by him at Runnymede on 15 June 1215. http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/themes/93/93691.html
  • The Twenty-five Barons Appointed to Enforce the Magna Carta Denis Gouey Bookbinding Studiohttp://bookbinding.com/magna-carta-2/the-barons.html

August 24, 1215 — King John appeals to Pope Innocent Ⅲ accusing his baronial opponents of bad faith and failure to implement their side of the "The Great Charter", aka: "Magna Carta", settlement. In his bull, Etsi karissimus of 24 August 1215, Pope Innocent Ⅲ condemned the charter as "not only shameful and demeaning but also illegal and unjust, thereby lessening unduly and impairing his [the king's] royal rights and dignity". (Several historians have passed a similar judgement on the twenty-five as self-interested extremists.)

"Etsi Karissimus in Christo filius noster Johannes"

Innocent, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all the faithful of Christ who will read this letter, greeting and apostolic benediction.

John, the king of England, our dearest and illustrious son in Christ, has greatly offended God and church, and we have excommunicated him and placed his kingdom under ecclesiastical interdict. Under the inspiration of Him who does not wish the death of a sinner but a conversion that the sinner may live, has now had a change of heart. He has humbly rendered satisfaction to God and the Church. He has granted his kingdom and that of Ireland to blessed Peter and the Roman church. He has received it back from us as a fief [feudum] having promised us a tribute of one thousand marks each year. He has taken the oath of fealty to us. . . . And even wishing to please omnipotent God more has also taken the sign of the living cross and is making magnificient preparations to go to the aid of the Holy Land. But Satan, who is always envious of good deeds, has stirred up the barons of England against him with his deceitful strategems. . . . These vassals conspired against their lord and swore oaths publically against him. They joined with his enemies and others and presumed to wage war against him. They occupied and ravaged his lands and captured the city of London, the chief seat of the kingdom. The king appealed to our court and informed them that he would grant them justice before us, to whom this case belongs by reason of feudal lordship [ratione dominii pertinebat]. They completely refused to submit. Consequently John was compelled by force and fear, that would cause the most reasonable of men to fail [vir constantissimus], to enter an agreement with them that was not only vile and base, but illegal and iniquitous. This agreement diminished and derogated his rights together with his honor. Because the Lord has said to us through the prophet:

I have placed you over nations and over kingdoms to root up and to pull down, to overthrow and lay in ruins, to build and plant anew” [Jeremiah 1.10]

and also through another prophet:

Destroy the conspiracies of impiety and relieve those torments that wear the people down [Isaiah 58.6]

… With the counsel of our brothers the cardinals, we completely reject and condemn this agreement (Magna Carta) and order under the penalty of excommunication that the king should not obey it and that the barons with their accomplices should not ask that it be obeyed. . . .We declare that the charter and all things connected to it is null and void forever.

Written at Agnani, August 24, 1215, in the eighteenth year of our pontificate

Latin text taken from Selected Letters of Pope Innocent Ⅲ Concerning England (1198-1216), edited and translated by C.R. Cheney and W.H. Semple (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1953), pp. 212-216

Translated by K. Pennington

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) begins.

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons backed by Louis, the son of King Philip Ⅱ Augustus of France, and King John.

  • First Barons' War (1215–1217) Rickard, J. (25 August 2000) – A civil war caused by the failure of King John to honour the terms of the Magna Carta. The Barons offered the throne to Louis, son of Philip Ⅱ Augustus of France. King John campaigned successfully in the Midlands and the North, but when Louis landed in Kent in May 1216 John lost control of the south east. King John died in October 1216, and with his death the rebels lost much of their support, as the supporters of the nine year old Henry Ⅲ gained ground. The barons were defeated at Lincoln, and the French supply ships captured, forcing Louis to accept the treaty of Kingston-upon-Thames (12 September 1217), in which the rebels were granted an amnesty, and Louis agreed not to support any future rebellion. The moderate nature of the treaty helped place Henry Ⅲ's reign on a firmer footing. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_firstbarons.html
  • First Barons' War http://www.physicsdaily.com – The war began over Magna Carta but quickly turned into a dynastic war for the throne of England. The rebel barons, faced with a powerful king, turned to the son of the king of France, Louis, son and heir apparent of king of France Philip Augustus. Louis landed in England on May 21, 1216 and marched on London where he was openly received by the rebel barons and citizens of London. Many of John's supporters, sensing a tide of change, moved to support to barons. http://cricket.www.physicsdaily.com/physics/Barons%27_War
  • England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217 Archontology.orghttp://www.archontology.org/nations/uk/england/king_england/01_louis_france.php
  • On the increase of royal power in France under Philip Augustus, 1179–1223 (1888) Author: Wilker, Williston, 1860–1922http://archive.org/details/onincreaseofroya00wilkrich

1216

November 12, 1216 — William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, issues a revised version of Magna Carta in his capacity as Regent and protectorate of nine-year-old Henry Ⅲ. with some of the clauses, including clause 61, omitted.

1217

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) ends.

September 1217 — The Second Treaty of Lambeth, aka: the Treaty of Kingston, ends the campaign known as the First Barons' War.

November 6, 1217 — The "Charter of the Forest" of King Henry Ⅲ was issued by William Marshal in the second year of Henry's reign.

  • Ⅷ.: CARTA DE FORESTA.1 (6 november, 1217.) – Magna Carta: A Commentary on the Great Charter of King John, with an Historical Introduction [1215] Online Library of Libertyhttp://oll.libertyfund.org/title/338/49167
  • The Charter of the Forest of King Henry Ⅲ St John’s College Research Centre, University of Oxford
    • The Charter of the Forest and its relationship to Magna Carta
    • A facsimile of the Charter of the Forest
    • An English translation of the Charter of the Forest

    http://www.sjc.ox.ac.uk/forests/Carta.htm

  • THE SECOND GREAT CHARTER OF KING HENRY THE THIRD Granted November 6th AD. 1217, IN THE SECOND YEAR OF HIS REIGN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL BY RICHARD THOMSON, 1829http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-1217.htm

1225

February 11, 1225 — King Henry Ⅲ, who has come of age, issues a substantially revised version of Magna Carta under his own great seal.

1258

The Second Barons' War (1258–1265) begins.

On 30 April 1258 a group of barons, led by Roger Bigod, the earl of Norfolk and hereditary marshal, marched to the hall of the royal palace at Westminster and induced the king to initiate a programme of reform. The barons sought to address a raft of financial and judicial grievances that had arisen during the last twenty-four years of the king's personal rule. The king accepted, believing the barons would further the 'Sicilian Business' in return. On 2 May, the reform movement set to work. The barons did not publish their reforms, nor, initially, their grievances, but two documents, known to historians as the Petition of the Barons and the Provisions of Oxford, drafted between April and June 1258, describe a series of problems and strategies which they discussed.1 From these documents three areas of reform stand out.

  • Introduction to Reign: Henry Ⅲ Fine Rolls Project The National Archives and King's College London – King Henry Ⅲ ruled for fifty-six years between 16 October 1216 and 16 November 1272. His is the third longest reign in English history. During this period the social and political landscape of England was changed irrevocably. Henry's reign saw the implementation of Magna Carta and the beginnings of parliament. There was population growth and economic expansion. England's relations with Europe were also transformed. By the time of Henry's death, the Angevins (England's ruling dynasty) had secured marital alliances with the kingdoms of Castile, France and Scotland, as well as the empire. But achievement went hand-in-hand with failure. The money getting operations of Henry's government were burdensome to the people and politically contentious. Henry's relationship with the English aristocracy was volatile. In 1258, riding the waves of complaint, a group of barons swept to power and took control of central government from the kings's hands. The barons initiated a three-year period of reform, which was ultimately to lead to a bitter civil war. Between the baronial victory at the battle of Lewes (14 May 1264) and the royalist triumph at the battle of Evesham (4 August 1265), the king was a captive of his brother-in-law, the earl of Leicester, Simon de Montfort. Historical opinion is divided as to whether one of England's longest-ruling monarchs was malevolent or misunderstood, benevolent and benign or fickle and foolhardy. Historians typically divide Henry's reign into four chronological periods:
    • – The Minority of Henry Ⅲ and its aftermath, 1216–1234
    • – The Personal rule of Henry Ⅲ, 1234–1258
    • – The Period of reform and rebellion, 1258–1267
    • – The Final years, 1267–1272

    http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/content/commentary/reign_intro.html

  • The Baronial Reform Movement in England, 1258–1267 Lin Zhiqiang – The Baronial Reform Movement which began in England in 1258 arose from the infringement on certain baronial interests of the expansion of royal power,but the fact that it erupted in that particular year was closely tied to the specific historical environment of the time.The barons who were against the King took control at one point,but their differing motivations meant that their cooperation did not last long.The civil war and the baronial administration which began in 1263 were particularly lacking in legitimacy in terms of law and tradition.Even though the Baronial Reform Movement failed to curb the long term rise in royal power,it prevented Henry Ⅲ from undue expansion of royal power and corrected some longstanding problems.As a program of action for the barons,the "Provisions of Oxford" was influential in later generations and cast an important influence to generations to come,and the baronial council laid the foundations for the birth of the mediaeval English parliament. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-LSYJ200406009.htm
  • The Barons' War (1258–65) Online Companion to Middle English Literature – Political misjudgement at home, failures abroad, and massive debts led to baronial opposition against Henry Ⅲ in 1258. The king's unwise judgement in favour of the Lusignian family in a quarrel against the baron John FitzGeoffrey was taken as the occasion for the barons' opposition under the leadership of Simon de Montfort. The Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259) limited the royal power to a by far greater extent than had been determined by Magna Carta. Increasing disunity of the barons, however, helped the king to regain political control in 1261. The only baron who refused to accept Henry was Simon de Montfort who withdrew to his estates in France. In 1263 Simon returned to England and succeded in re-uniting a baronial reform movement, though on a much smaller scale than in 1258. Under Simon's command the reformers' army won a decisive victory over Henry and his loyal followers at Lewes in 1264. The king, his brother Richard, and Prince Edward were taken prisoners. The realm was ruled by a council presided by Earl Simon. Yet, within months, the barons' faction crumbled by defection and Edward managed to escape. In 1265, Simon de Montfort was defeated and killed at the battle of Evesham.
    http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/~holteir/companion/Navigation/History/The_13th_Century/Barons__War/barons__war.html
  • Montfortians act. (1258–1265) by J. R. Maddicott – Montfortians (act. 1258–1265) were the followers of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, during the movement of baronial reform and rebellion that he helped to initiate in 1258 and subsequently came to lead. Most steadfast among them were the family members, friends, and landed neighbours and retainers who formed his inner circle. The higher nobility provided him with a few intermittent allies, but the baronial Montfortians were mainly drawn from a rather lower social level. Beyond these men lay an outer circle of political sympathizers, chiefly country gentry but also embracing the much more varied sorts of men and women who journeyed to the earl's shrine at Evesham after his death in battle there in 1265. http://www.oxforddnb.com/templates/theme-print.jsp?articleid=95590

1297

October 12, 1297 — King Edward Ⅰ confirms Henry Ⅲ's 1225 version of Magna Carta: this text is subsequently placed on the first statute roll.

1301

February 14, 1301 — King Edward Ⅰ issues his last confirmation of the Magna Carta.

THE LAST CONFIRMATION OF THE CHARTERS OF LIBERTIES,

BY

KING EDWARD THE FIRST

Granted February 14th, 1300/1301,

IN THE TWENTY-NINTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN.

EDWARD, by the Grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine, to all to whom the present Letters shall come. Greeting.

Know ye that we have granted and confirmed the Great Charter of the Liberties of England, with a Charter also for the Forests, of the Lord Henry, formerly King of England, our father, which we have renewed by our Charter; and we command, that those Charters in all their articles shall be firmly held and observed: We also will, and have granted for us and our heirs, that if any statute shall be contrary to the said Charters, or to any article contained in the said Charters, the same shall be amended, or even annulled by the common council of our realm, in testimony of which thing we have caused these our letters to be made patent. Witness, myself, at Lincoln, the fourteenth day of February, in the twenty-ninth year of our reign.

1337

The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between England and France begins.

The Hundred Years' War, lasting from 1337 until 1453, was a defining time
for the history of both England and France. The war started in May 1337 when
King Philip Ⅵ of France attempted to confiscate the English territories
in the duchy of Aquitaine (located in Southwestern France). It ended in July
1453 when the French finally expelled the English from the continent (except
for Calais). The Hundred Years War was a series of chevauchees (plundering
raids), sieges and naval battles
interspersed with truces and uneasy
peace.

  • The Hundred Years War: Overview OSU Department of History
    eHistory is in the process of creating a MultiMedia History for the Hundred
    Years War; in the meantime we’ve gathered most of the materials from the
    old site here until the new pages are ready. Readers might also be interested
    in our online translation of the Chronicles
    of Froissart
    which is considered
    a key primary source on the era, as well as our timeline
    of the Hundred Years War
    in our Timelines. http://ehistory.osu.edu/middleages/hundredyearswar/overview.cfm
  • The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) [100 Years' War] Luminarium – HUNDRED YEARS' WAR. This name is given to the protracted conflict between France and England from 1337 to 1453, which continued through the reigns of the French kings Philip Ⅵ, John Ⅱ, Charles Ⅴ, Charles Ⅵ, Charles Ⅶ, and of the English kings Edward Ⅲ, Richard Ⅱ, Henry Ⅳ, Henry Ⅴ and Henry Ⅵ. The principal causes of the war, which broke out in Guienne in 1337,were the disputes arising in connexion with the French possessions of the English kings, in respect to which they were vassals of the kings of France; the pretensions of Edward Ⅲ to the French throne after the accession of Philip Ⅵ; Philip's intervention in the affairs of Flanders and Scotland; and, finally, the machinations of Robert of Artois. http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/100years.htm
  • The Hundred Years' War HistoryLearningSite.co.uk – The Hundred Years' War was a series of wars between England and France. The background of the Hundred Years' War went as far back as to the reign of William the Conqueror. When William the Conqueror became king in 1066 after his victory at the Battle of Hastings, he united England with Normandy in France. William ruled both as his own. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/hundred_years_war.htm
  • The Hundred Years' War: What was it? Dr. L. Kip Wheeler – The Hundred Years' War was a long struggle between England and France over succession to the French throne. It lasted from 1337 to 1453, so it might more accurately be called the "116 Years' War." The war starts off with several stunning successes on Britain's part, and the English forces dominate France for decades. Then, the struggle see-saws back and forth. In the 1360s, the French are winning. From 1415–1422, the English are winning. After 1415, King Henry Ⅴ of England revives the campaign and he conquers large portions of France, winning extraordinary political concessions. From 1422 onward, however, the French crown strikes back. The teenage girl Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc), a remarkable young mystic, leads the French troops to reclaim their lands. Here's the brief outline of events, with major battles put in bold red color: http://web.cn.edu/KWHEELER/Hundred_Years.html
  • Hundred Years War http://www.middle ages.org.ukhttp://www.middle-ages.org.uk/hundred-years-war.htm

1407

1407 — Bank of St George, aka: "Company of Saint George", "Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio", was founded in 1407 in the Republic of Genoa. A number of prominent Genoese families were involved in the establishment and governance of the Bank, including the Houses of Grimaldi & Serra.

  • Official archives of the House and Bank of St. George (Italian)http://www.lacasadisangiorgio.it/
  • Genoa and the history of finance: a series of FIRSTS? Giuseppe Felloni – http://www.giuseppefelloni.ithttp://www.giuseppefelloni.it/rassegnastampa/Genova%20e%20la%20storia%20della%20finanza.pdf [pdf]
    • Chapter 1: Public Debt Abstract In ancient times the power of the state was based upon treasures accumulated during prosperous, peaceful times by its rulers or, more often, upon the spoils of war. Nowadays it is nearly entirely based upon public debt, that is, money lent to the governing authority by private citizens. The present day system is the result of a long evolution which began in the Middle Ages and developed within the Italian city-states; the oldest records of public debt date back to the mid. Ⅻ century and relate to the city of Genoa: loans made by private citizens to the state and granted with a public revenue as security ("compere"). This was the same founding principle on which public debt of the big European monarchies was based from the ⅩⅥ century onwards.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter01.php
    • Chapter 2: Government Bonds Abstract The amount of money needed by local government is usually too much for a single investor to lend. A large number of subscribers with equal rights to interest and repayment of capital has to be brought together to provide the entire sum. In order to simplify calculations on such large sums of money and attract investment, the capital is divided into shares with the same nominal value and the same privileges, and the subscriber can sell them on to a third party in exchange for cash. The earliest record of this practice is again to be found in Genoa: during the early ⅩⅢ century public debt ("compere") was divided into shares ("luoghi", in Latin "loca", sing. "locus") with a nominal value of 100 lire. The "luoghi" could be disposed of at the owner's will and, shortly after their issue, became tax-free and could not be confiscated by the state.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter02.php
    • Chapter 3: Public debt reform Abstract The world of public debt is full of ups and downs, sometimes to the advantage of the state and the disadvantage of its creditors, or vice versa. When government needs funds it offers high interest rates, which deplete public revenues, enriching the creditors but also compromising the smooth running of the bureaucratic machine. Inevitably there comes a point when the state has to alter the original terms of the loan introducing various reforms: consolidation of matured loans, introduction of a lower interest rate, unification of various debts to achieve economies of scale. In Genoa expansion and reforms to public debt were particularly frequent, leading to an accelerated evolution of financial techniques and to the formation of a strong group of public creditors.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter03.php
    • Chapter 4 – The House of St. George: a state within a state Abstract The House of St. George in Genoa is an institution without equal, both for its multifaceted nature and for its fundamental role in the world of finance: It started in 1407 as a consortium of public creditors to which the state ceded a large number of tax revenues and almost immediately (1408) started a banking activity, backed by the cash flow from public revenues. In exchange for loans to the state it received sovereign control of near and distant territories, which lasted until 1562. From the late ⅩⅥ century onwards the House of St George reorganised its banking activities opening more "branches" depending on the currency it was dealing with and at the beginning of the ⅩⅦ century started issuing nominal fiduciary bills.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter04.php
    • Chapter 5 – Discount on state Bond coupons Abstract Discount is one of the most powerful tools for stimulation of the economy because it makes cash available in advance of an as yet unmatured credit and thereby increases the amount of capital immediately available. The oldest record of the systematic and general use of discount is to be found in Genoa in the mid ⅩⅤ century. It consisted of the discount on the earnings (or "paghe") of public debt bonds (the "luoghi" of St. George).
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter05.php
    • Chapter 6 – Repayment of public debt and establishment of Sinking funds Abstract The gradual extinction of a debt requires that the contracted sums of money be available at the agreed dates. The money can be provided by the capitalisation of a purpose-built fund. The repayment of public debt in Genoa by using sinking funds is recorded from the second half of the ⅩⅣ century: it was a method used mainly by private citizens, who invested in government bonds and kept them at fixed compound interest ("moltiplici").
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter06.php
    • Chapter 7 – Double entry and public accountancy Abstract A state with modest territories, but complex to manage both because of the one year duration of most of its public offices and the multiplicity of cash flows (both in and out); the need to distinguish between purely financial cash flows on the one hand and between revenues and expenses on the other; the necessity for an accounting system which would permit quick check and the easy spotting of mistakes. These were the main factors, which must have led the municipality of Genoa to apply the double entry system to the accounts of state; an accounting system introduced between 1327 (probably) and 1340, perhaps following the example of private bankers, but in any case before – unless proved otherwise – all other Italian and European states.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter07.php
    • Chapter 8 – The Lottery and selection to public office Abstract State officials were selected by a "draw" of the candidates for public office. The event was paired with a yearly lottery with stakes of 1 florin and a rich jackpot; a poor servant won the first prize of 1000 lire, a sum equal to the yearly salary of 10 chancellors… Where can one find such a combination of events between the end of the ⅩⅣ century and the beginning of the ⅩⅤ century ? Only in Genoa.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter08.php
    • Chapter 9 – Clearing house Abstract The increase in exchange is a powerful factor in economic growth, as long as there is no shortage of the means of payment. If this happens, the multiplication of business transactions stops. A clever way to overcome the problem is with the balancing of debits and credits: an easy process when only two people are involved but more complicated with several people in the picture. A solution to this was presented by the clearing houses linked to the Genoese exchange fairs (at their height between 1580 and 1630) where the business transactions of half of Europe were conducted and cleared. Only later, in 1773, the first clearing house of the contemporary era would open: the London Clearing House.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter09.php
    • Chapter 10 – The protection of financial capital and the “very wise” laws of Genoa Abstract Right from its beginning the monetary market has been characterised by two linked, secular phenomena: devaluation of the unit of account and price inflation. These have implications for the settlement of term bonds: the loss of value in currency between the time of entering into a debt and the time of its repayment can fall: 1) on the debtor, if the principle of equality between the purchasing power of the money loaned and that of the money refunded is applied; or 2) on the creditor, if the nominalist principle of numeric equality between the units of account given and those received is applied. The problem was well known in Genoa and after the first measures devised by creditors to transfer the loss to the debtor, a well constructed act of law was passed to deal with this matter.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter10.php
    • Chapter 11 – The archives of the Bank of St George: a goldmine for sources of information on the history of finance (… and more) Abstract The archives of the House of the "compere" and banks of St George, come to us largely intact, provide an extraordinary source of information on local history, on the history of finance in general and on aspects of social equilibrium, business organisation, customs administration, etc. In order to make this documentary heritage easily accessible to scholars, a detailed catalogue is being prepared to illustrate its components, contents and potential.
      http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/en/ghf_chapter11.php

1555

September 25, 1555 — The Religious Peace of Augsburg signed. The "Diet of Augsburg (1555)" is widely viewed as the turning point between the tumultuous age of the Protestant Reformation in the German lands and the subsequent era of confessional formation and negotiation. In the wake of two wars – the Smalkaldic War of 1546–47 and the Princes' War of 1552 – King Ferdinand and the leading princes decided to move toward a negotiated, provisional arrangement of the religious question. The Diet of Augsburg was important in many respects, but its central achievement was its provisions on religion, "the Religious Peace." Briefly stated, the Religious Peace made political restoration possible by accepting what had previously been regarded as an impossibility – namely, religious diversity. http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=4386&language=english

1609

The Bank of Amsterdam, "Amsterdamsche Wisselbank", was established by the Dutch House of Orange in 1609 and rose to become a major hub of world monetary affairs in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As a so-called bank of deposit, the Bank of Amsterdam hardly resembled anything we now call a bank. It rarely even made loans, with the exception of loans to Dutch municipalities and to the Dutch East India Company. The bank held deposits of major currencies and facilitated payment in foreign trade transactions.
The model for the Bank of Amsterdam were banks in the small Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, where the circulating money consisted of a medley of currencies issued by home governments and neighboring states. Currency that flowed in to these areas from trading partners was often clipped and worn, creating uncertainty about the value of foreign bills of exchange paid in these currencies. To remove this uncertainty these small city-states required that foreign bills of exchange above a certain amount be paid in transfers between accounts in a bank rather than in domestic currency. Special banks enjoying full government backing were established to handle these transactions.
Before 1609 the prevalence of worn and clipped coins had depreciated the value of Amsterdam's currency by 9 percent below the value of currency fresh from the mint. With Amsterdam's merchants running short of good money to pay bills of exchange, the government created the Bank of Amsterdam as a means of providing a currency of uniform value. The bank was a bank of deposit, accepting deposits of currencies at face value, foreign or domestic, worn, clipped, or freshly minted. Depositors paid a small recoinage and management fee deducted from each deposit. The balance on a depositor's account constituted a form of money called money of account or bank money and it never suffered any kind of debasement. Its value remained the same as if it were fresh from the mint. Along with the establishment of the bank came the legal requirement that foreign bills of exchange drawn on Amsterdam, equal to or greater than 600 guilders, be drawn for payment in bank money.
The Bank of Amsterdam also took deposits of bullion, giving each customer a receipt valued in bank money for a deposit of bullion, and crediting the customer's account of bank money in an amount equal to the value of the bullion deposit. The receipt entitled the customer to buy back the bullion with bank money at the price stated on the receipt. The customer paid a modest fee to the bank for storage of the bullion, and if the customer defaulted on the storage fee, the bank took possession of the bullion and sold it as part of the bank's profit. The bank money was much more convenient to handle than bullion and just as good in the eyes of European bankers. Vast deposits of coin and bullion made the Bank of Amsterdam an important holder of the reserves of the European monetary system, putting the bank in a position to play a regulatory role.
Because the Bank of Amsterdam was not a lending institution it stored all the currency and bullion deposited with it in readiness to redeem its outstanding bank money. Bank money was superior to currency and merchants were willing to pay a premium for it, enabling the bank to earn income by selling its bank money at a premium.
In the 1780s wartime difficulties forced the bank to underwrite loans to merchants in difficulty, and the bank saw its reserves drop substantially relative to the deposits of bank money owed to the public. The public turned cautious, and when the French invaded in 1795, caution turned to panic. Unable to redeem all the deposits of coins and bullion, the bank closed down. In 1802 a forced loan allowed the bank to reopen its doors, but it was not successful, and in 1820 the Bank of Amsterdam was liquidated.

July 1609 — The Bohemian Religious Peace issued by Emperor Rudolph Ⅱ for the kingdom of Bohemia. The edict (called a "Letter of Majesty") confirmed to each of the recognized confessions the right to practice its faith without coercion. Making good on a promise that Rudolph's father, Maximilian Ⅱ, had made in 1575 to the Bohemian estates, the edict departed drastically from the religious settlement of 1555 for the German lands. http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=4501&startrow=1

The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) begins. [?]

The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was the most destructive conflict in Europe before the twentieth-century world wars. There are several explanations of what caused the war, but these rarely discuss the merits of alternative interpretations, nor do they make their own underlying assumptions explicit. Anglophone scholarship generally fits the war into a wider struggle against Spanish Habsburg hegemony, whereas older German writing saw it as a conflict beginning in the Holy Roman Empire but fusing with wars elsewhere. Others place greater emphasis on structural causes, interpreting the war as the culmination of a 'General Crisis of the seventeenth century' attributed to social, economic or environmental factors. More recently, there has been a return to the view that it was a religious war, or that it was a 'state-building war' related to the transition from medieval to modern political organisation. This article reviews these approaches and investigates how they work as historical explanations, before suggesting an alternative. It identifies the difficulty in defining the war as a chief obstacle to explaining its causes. While related to other European conflicts, the Thirty Years War was primarily a struggle over the political and religious order within the Empire. It was neither inevitable, nor the result of irreconcilable religious antagonism. Rather, it stemmed from a coincidence of tension within the Empire with a political and dynastic crisis within the Habsburg monarchy that undermined confidence in the emperor’s ability to resolve long-standing constitutional problems. [?]

1648

October 14–24, 1648 — Peace Treaties of Westphalia signed ending the Thirty Years War. The "Peace of Westphalia" was actually two treaties, each negotiated in a different seat of an Imperial prince-bishop in the land of Westphalia. On October 14/24, 1648, the treaty between Emperor Ferdinand Ⅲ and Queen Christina of Sweden and their respective allies was signed at Osnabrück (see part A, below); on the same day, the treaty between Ferdinand Ⅲ and King Louis ⅩⅣ of France and their respective allies was signed at Münster (see part B). For the Holy Roman Empire, the Peace meant a settlement to the political and territorial disputes that had begun with the German Reformation and an end to the conflicts sparked by the Bohemian conflict of 1618 and the Swedish invasion of June 1631. http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=3778&language=english

1700

February 1700 – August 1721 — Third Northern War, aka: "Great Northern War (1700–1721)", begins between King Charles Ⅻ of Sweden on one side, and a coalition lead by Peter the Great of Russia, including Denmark–Norway and Saxony–Poland on the other, for supremacy of the Baltic area, Northern Europe, Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Several peace treaties brought and end to the conflicts with Sweden being defeated:

  • November 1719 — Treaty of Stockholm was signed between Sweden and Hanover. Sweden handed over Bremen and Verden to Holstein in return for financial and naval support. The Elector of Hanover was George I.
  • Jan–Feb 1720 — Treaty of Stockholm was signed between Sweden and Brandenburg. Sweden ceded Stettin, South Pomerania, the islands of Usedom and Wollin in return for money.
  • July 1720 — Treaty of Fredriksborg was signed between Sweden and Denmark. Sweden gave up her exception from paying taxes to use the Sound. She also gave up Holstein-Gottorp.
  • Aug–Sep 1721 — Treaty of Nystad was signed between Sweden and Russia with Sweden recognizing Russia’s hold on territory it had conquered, including Ingria, Estonia, Livonia, Vyborg (Viipuri), Kexholm (Piorzersk) and part of Karelia.
  • 1731 — Peace of Oliva, aka: “Treaty of Oliva (1660)”, was renewed between Sweden and Poland and Sweden recognizes Augustus as King of Poland. It was one of several treaties that ended the Second Northern War in 1660.

1701

1701 — War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), aka: "Marlborough's Wars" begins, Ended with the "Treaty of Utrecht" in 1713.

  • The Spanish Succession http://www.spanishsuccession.nl – This site is called the Spanish Succession. It's about the years 1700 till 1715, a time dominated by the War of the Spanish Succession. This era can be viewed from many perspectives. The goal of this site is to make this possible by providing a lot of background information and some good articles. The latter tend to go back to the primary source and to be verifyable by providing direct links to this source. http://www.spanishsuccession.nl
  • The War of the Spanish Succession 1701–14 Nicole Kipar – The War of the Spanish Succession, also known as Marlborough's Wars (1702–13), fought in Europe and on the Mediterranean, were the last and the bloodiest of the Wars between England and France under Louis ⅩⅣ, and the first in which Britain played a major military role in European military affairs. http://www.kipar.org/military-history/kirkes_spanish_succession.html
  • THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION Bamber Gascoigner – At the start, in 1701, the quarrel is specifically between France and Austria – or between Louis ⅩⅣ and the emperor Leopold Ⅰ. Each is fighting on behalf of a grandson or son who is not next in line of succession to the French or Austrian throne. Each of the candidates has been identified in the Spanish king's will, which states that if his crown is not accepted by one of the younger grandsons of Louis XIV it shall go to the younger son of Leopold Ⅰ (the archduke Charles). The list of nations involved in the war soon extends beyond France and Austria – perhaps inevitably in view of the importance of the issue, but also because of the aggressive stance taken by Louis ⅩⅣ. Alarmed by France's ambitious demands, England and Holland enter the fray in 1702 in support of the Austrian emperor. The emperor can also rely on many of the states within his German empire, among whom the most useful ally is Prussia (encouraged in 1701 by being elevated to a kingdom). The important exception among the German states is Bavaria, whose elector in 1702 joins the war on the side of France. Spain is with France (fulfilling the intention of the late king's will), as also are the neighbouring territories of Portugal and Savoy. These two are reluctant allies, acting mainly from fear of the Bourbons. Both change sides in 1703, when the fortunes of war favour the imperial side. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ad06
  • What was the cause of the War of Spanish Succession? CliffsNotes.com – King Philip Ⅳ of Spain died in 1665, leaving behind only one surviving son, Charles, who became Charles Ⅱ. Charles Ⅱ – disfigured and mentally challenged – ascended the throne at the wee age of 4, the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs. He came to be known as El Hechizado, "The Bewitched," because it was popularly believed that his disfigurement was caused by sorcery. (It was more likely caused by generations of inbreeding.) So as not to overtax him physically or mentally, he was left totally uneducated and not even expected to keep himself clean. http://www.cliffsnotes.com/cliffsnotes/foreign-languages/what-was-the-cause-of-the-war-of-spanish-succession
  • The War of Spanish Succession 1701–1714 World History at KMLAhttp://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/18cen/spansucc.html
  • CHAPTER ⅩⅬⅤ THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, 1740–1748 A HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE FROM THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE TO THE WAR OF CRIMEA A.D. 1453–1900http://www.cristoraul.com/ENGLISH/history-of-europe/DYER-HISTORY-OF-MODERN-EUROPE-1453-1900/45-WAR-OF-THE-AUSTRIAN-SUCCESSION.html

1702

May 4, 1702 — Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) begins as the North American theatre of the War of the Spanish Succession that began in Europe in 1701, ended with the "Treaty of Utrecht".

1713

April 11, 1713 — The Treaty of Utrecht peace agreement was signed between England and France to end the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) in Europe and Queen Anne's War (1702–13) in the Americas. The Treaties of Utrecht which were agreed between March and April 1713 in the Dutch city of that name brought a formal end to the War of Spanish Succession. The war had nominally been about whether the Austrian Hapsburg monarchy would be able to nominate the successor to King Charles Ⅱ of Spain, a member of the collateral branch of the Hapsburg dynasty, or would allow the succession pass to Bourbon France. Behind this dynastic question, the war had really been about the European "balance of power" (a phrase first used around this time). The question was which parts of the declining Spanish empire would fall to Britain, France and Austria (also known as the Holy Roman Empire), and which parts would be left to Spain.

  • The Treaties of Utrecht (1713) François Velde – The Treaties of Utrecht, signed in 1713, put an end to the War of Spanish Succession (1701–13). The war resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after its Habsburg rulers became extinct in 1700. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles Ⅱ (d. 1700) had left the throne to his closest relative in female line: Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis ⅩⅣ (Felipe Ⅴ of Spain. The closest relatives in male line, the Habsburgs of Austria, disputed this claim, and many European nations did not want to see French princes reigning over both kingdoms. The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe Ⅴ of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy. To reach the goal of separating the crowns of France and Spain, the treaties required Felipe Ⅴ to relinquish all claims to the French throne, and the remaining French princes to relinquish all claims to the Spanish throne. The validity of the renunciation of Felipe Ⅴ, which are ancillary to the treaties, became a constitutional issue in France. However, it would have become a practical issue only after the branch senior to Felipe Ⅴ died out in 1883, at which time the French monarchy had been abolished and had lost most chances of a restoration. Still, the dispute over the renunciation continues among those interested in the French monarchy and its present-day representatives. This page presents the treaties of Utrecht in their historical context and analyzes their content.
    Contents:

    http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/utrecht.htm

  • TREATY OF UTRECHT, SECTION ⅩⅤ April 11, 1713 Daniel N. Paul – For centuries prior to 1713, wars raged almost constantly between France and England – over the eons many peace treaties were negotiated, signed, and broken at will. True to form, on July 13, 1713, they ratified another, the Treaty of Utrecht. Which, in time, like all previous peace deals between them, would prove to be no more than a respite from war. The war the treaty ended, like most European wars, had been caused by family squabbles among the pampered royal houses of Europe. Religion was also a prime factor, it's prominently mentioned in the preamble and in several sections. The treaty also included provisions that were extremely bad news for the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and Acadians. Section XII transferred to the British Crown the self-presumed French ownership of Acadia. This event marked the beginning of the end of French power in the Americas. http://www.danielnpaul.com/TreatyOfUtrecht-1713.html
  • ARTICLE Ⅹ OF THE TREATY OF UTRECHT 13 JULY 1713 http://www.llanito.net – The Catholic King does hereby, for himself, his heirs and successors, yield to the Crown of Great Britain the full and entire propriety of the town and castle of Gibraltar, together with the port, fortifications, and forts thereunto belonging; and he gives up the said propriety to be held and enjoyed absolutely with all manner of right for ever, without any exception or impediment whatsoever. But that abuses and frauds may be avoided by importing any kind of goods, the Catholic King wills, and takes it to be understood, that the above-named propriety be yielded to Great Britain without any territorial jurisdiction and without any open communication by land with the country round about… http://www.llanito.net/utrecht.htm

1717

1717 — King Frederick William Ⅰ inaugurates the Prussian compulsory school system, the first national system in Europe, which ordered compulsory attendance of all children at the state schools. Later acts followed with provisions for the construction of more such schools.

1718

1718 — Age of Liberty, aka: "Era of Liberty", "Period of Liberty", "Era of Freedom" (1718–1772) begins in Sweden.

1733

The Thirty Years' War (1733–1763) begins. [?]

1733–1763 — The Thirty Years' Wars consisted of several conflicts, wars and treaties in Europe and the Americas.

  1. The War of Polish Succession (1733–1739), ended with the "Treaty of Vienna 1738".
  2. The War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), North American theatre known as King George's War (1744–1748), ended with the "Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle" in 1745 .
  3. The Seven Years' War (1756–1763), North American theatre known as the French and Indian War, ended with the "Peace of Paris 1763" and the "Treaty of Hubertsburg".

1738

November 18, 1738 — France and Austria sign final "Peace of Vienna" aka: "Treaty of Vienna 1738" (France signed a preliminary peace with Austria October, 3, 1735), ending the War of Polish Succession (1733–1739).

1741

July 1741 — Swedish–Russian War of 1741–1743, aka: "Russo–Swedish War of 1741–1743", "War of the Hats", "Hats' Russian War", "Hats' War", "Little Discord (lilla ofreden)", begins when Sweden declares war on Russia in an effort to regain some of its previously lost territories during the Great Northern War; ended with a Swedish defeat and the Russian takeover of Finland.

  • Swedish–Russian War 1741–1743 World History at KMLA

1742

Generation Shift: Republican Generation begins (1742–1766) [?]

The Republican Generation is the name given to that generation of Americans born from 1742 to 1766 by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations. They grew up as the precious object of adult protection during the French and Indian Wars, an era of rising crime and social disorder. They came of age highly regarded for their secular optimism and spirit of cooperation. As young adults, they achieved glory as soldiers in the American Revolutionary War, brilliance as scientists, order as civic planners, and epic success as state-crafters. Trusted by elders and aware of their own role in history, they led the campaign to ratify the United States Constitution and filled all the early cabinet posts. In midlife, they built canals and acquired territories, while their orderly Federalist and rational Republican leaders made America a "workshop of liberty". As elders, they chafed at passionate youths bent on repudiating much of what they had built.

The Republicans' typical grandparents were of the Enlightenment Generation. Their parents were of the Awakening Generation and Liberty Generation. Their children were of the Compromise Generation and Transcendental Generation and their typical grandchildren were of the Gilded Generation.

Altogether, about 2.1 million Americans were born from 1742 to 1766. 17 percent were immigrants and 17 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.


1748

October 18, 1748 — "Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle", aka: "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle", "Treaty of Aachen", negotiated largely by Britain and France, was signed ending the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) concluding with a status quo ante bellum.

1754

1754–1763 — French and Indian War begins between the Colonies of British America and New France. In 1756 the war escalated from a regional affair into a world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War.

1756

1756–1763 — Seven Years' War begins the first global war by most of the great powers of the time that affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. The protagonists were Britain, Prussia and Hanover against France, Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia and eventually Spain. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763. The war is alternatively named after combatants in the respective theaters:

  • "Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1762)" was signed on May 5, 1762, ending the Seven Years' War between Prussia and Russia.
    • Russia and Prussia concluded the Treaty of Saint Petersburg 05 May 1762 Yeltsin Presidential Library – April 24 (May 5), 1762 Chancellor M. I. Vorontsov and the Prussian envoy, Baron R. Goltz, signed the Treaty of St. Petersburg between the Russian Empire and Prussia, which stopped the war between the two powers. http://www.prlib.ru/en-us/History/Pages/Item.aspx?itemid=1032
  • French and Indian War (1754–1763), aka: "French–Indian War", "War of the Conquest", "La guerre de la Conquête", involving Iroquois, French and British forces in North America; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763.
  • Pomeranian War (1757–1762); in Sweden and Prussia; ended with the Treaty of Hamburg signed between Sweden and Prussia on May 22, 1762.
  • Third Carnatic War (1757–1763) between French and British forces on the Indian subcontinent; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763.
  • Third Silesian War (1756–1763) between Austria and Prussia over Silesia; ended with the Treaty of Hubertusburg signed February 15, 1763 at Hubertusburg by Prussia, Austria, and Saxony.
  • Spanish–Portuguese War (1761–1763), aka: "Fantastic War", "Guerra Fantástica" "War of the Pacte de Famille"; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763; the status-quo between Spain and Portugal of before the war was restored.
  • Anglo–Spanish War (1761–1763) between Britain and Spain; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763; Spain cedes Florida to Britain in exchange for return of Havana.

1763

1763 — General-Landschulreglement (General Education Regulations), aka: "Landschulreglement", instituted by King Frederick Ⅱ of Prussia. The most ambitious educational reform of 18th century Europe introduced universal primary education into all Prussian villages to increase the power of the state by improving the productive skills of the people and sharpening the acumen of prospective officers and civil servants. Likewise, raison d'état was the rationale for the educational reforms imposed by Joseph Ⅱ in Austria in the 1780s. In his attempt to institute compulsory, secular education, he stressed an elementary and secondary training that would improve the productivity of the population and carefully limited higher education so as not to produce a flock of underemployed, meddlesome intellectuals.

February 10, 1763 — Treaty of Paris, aka: “Peace of Paris”, “Treaty of 1763”, signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. Britain did not fully exploit the worldwide successes it had enjoyed, as Pitt had resigned and the Earl of Bute was anxious for peace. Under the terms of the treaty Britain gained French Canada and all the territory France had claimed to the east of the Mississippi. France ceded some West Indian islands, including St Vincent and Tobago, but retained the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. In India, France retained its trading-stations but not its forts. Britain gained Senegal in West Africa and Florida from Spain; it also recovered Minorca in exchange for Belle Isle. Spain recovered Havana and Manila, and France’s claims in Louisiana west of the Mississippi were ceded to Spain in compensation for Florida, which became British until 1783. Britain was supreme at sea and, for the time being, dominated the east coast of North America. [?]

  • Treaty of Paris (1763) (Transcript) Ohio History Centralhttp://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Treaty_of_Paris_(1763)_(Transcript)
  • Treaty of Paris, 1763 Site for Language Management in Canada (SLMC) – Official Languages and Bilingualism Institute (OLBI) – The 1763 Treaty of Paris officially ended the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) between France and Great Britain. Through this treaty, France ceded all of New France to Great Britain, with the exception of Louisiana, which had become a Spanish holding the previous year. Of its vast North American empire, France kept only the minuscule Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon islands south of Newfoundland as well as its fishing rights. The treaty’s linguistic significance is virtually nil, as language was not an issue at the time, even less so for French, which was considered the international language of treaties. The Treaty of Paris, which was officially written in French, gave Canadians the freedom to profess their Catholic religion (Section 4) “en tant que le permettent les lois de la Grande-Bretagne.” Implicitly, the treaty acknowledged the possibility of doing so in French. http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=leg_treaty_paris

February 15, 1763 — Treaty of Hubertusburg, “Frieden von Hubertusburg”, signed at Hubertusburg by Prussia, Austria, and Saxony. Together with the Treaty of Paris, it marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years' War. The treaty ended the continental conflict with no significant changes in prewar borders.

October 7, 1763 — Royal Proclamation of 1763 issued by King George Ⅲ of Britain establishing a system of government for former French colonies in North America, which Britain had won following the Seven Years War. The Proclamation notes aboriginal claims to lands and says treaties with natives will be handled by the Crown and included was a basic framework for relations with North American Aboriginals. As such, it is often referred to as an "Indian Magna Carta" or an "Indian Bill of Rights."

1767

Generation Shift: Compromise Generation begins (1767-1791) [?]

The Compromise Generation is that name given to the generation of Americans born from 1767 to 1791 by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations. As Henry Clay later recalled, this generation grew up "rocked in the cradle of the Revolution" as they watched brave adults struggle and triumph. Compliantly coming of age, they offered a new erudition, expertise, and romantic sensibility to their heroic elders' Age of Improvement. As young adults, they became what historian Matthew Cremson calls "the administrative founding fathers" and soldiered a Second War for Independence whose glory could never compare with the first. In midlife, they mentored populist movements, fretted over slavery and Indian removal, and presided over the Great Compromise that reflected their irresolution. As elders during the American Civil War, they feared that their "postheroic" mission had failed and that the United States might not outlive them.

The Compromisers' typical grandparents were of the Awakening Generation. Their parents were of the Liberty Generation and Republican Generation. Their children were of the Transcendental Generation and Gilded Generation; their typical grandchildren were of the Progressive Generation.

Altogether, about 4.2 million Americans were born from 1767 to 1791. 10 percent were immigrants and 15 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.

1780

1780–1784 – "Fourth Anglo-Dutch War" begins between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic over British and Dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of Dutch trade with Britain's enemies in the American Revolutionary War.

1783

September 3, 1783 – "Peace of Paris (1783)", aka: "Treaties of Versailles (1783)", signed between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic on the other, that end the American Revolutionary War.

  • Treaty of Paris (1783) signed between Great Britain and the United States of America ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784, formally ending the American Revolutionary War.
  • Treaties of Versailles (1783) signed between Great Britain on one side and France and Spain on the other.
  • Treaty with the Dutch Republic – Preliminary articles signed September 2, 1783 between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, final treaty signed on May 20, 1784, formerly ending the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.
1783–1788 – Financial Crisis in France begins due to the enormous debt France built up participating in the Seven Years' War and American Revolution from 1756–1783.

1789

French Revolution (1789–1799) begins.

1791

February 25, 1791 – U.S.Congress charters the "Bank of the United States", aka: "First Bank of the United States", "The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States", for a term of twenty years. The establishment of this new "central bank" was championed by Alexander Hamilton, the first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, who persuaded Congress to set up a financial system designed to rescue the Republic from the humiliating bankruptcy that had almost destroyed the nation after the Revolution. The Bank was strongly opposed by U.S. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who led the opposition, which claimed that the bank was unconstitutional, and that it benefited merchants and investors at the expense of the majority of the population. "A public debt," Hamilton said, "was a public blessing." It could be used to pump new life into the all-but-dormant American economy. The Jeffersonians accused the secretary of trying to turn the new nation into a mirror image of Great Britain, which was not far from the truth. The charter was to last for 20 years and expire in 1811.

1792

Generation Shift: Transcendental Generation begins (1792-1821) [?]

The Transcendental Generation is the name given by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for that generation of Americans born from 1792 to 1821. The proud offspring of a secular new nation, this generation included the first children to be portraited (and named at birth) as individuals. Coming of age as evangelists, reformers, and campus rioters, they triggered the Second Great Awakening, a spiritual paroxysm across the nation. As crusading young adults, their divergent inner visions exacerbated sectional divisions. Entering midlife, graying abolitionists and Southrons spurned compromise and led the nation into the American Civil War, their zeal fired by the moral pronouncements of an aging clergy. The victors achieved emancipation but were blocked from imposing a peace as punishing as the old radicals would like to have wished. In elderhood, their feminists and poets (many with flowing beards) became unyielding expositors of truth and justice.

The Transcendentals' typical grandparents were of the Liberty Generation. Their parents were of the Republican Generation and Compromise Generation. Their children were of the Gilded Generation and Progressive Generation and their typical grandchildren were of the Missionary Generation.

Altogether, there were about 11 million Americans born from 1792 to 1821. 20 percent were immigrants and 13 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.

March – April 1792 – The "Panic of 1792" begins as a financial credit crisis that occurred due to the speculation of William Duer and Alexander Macomb against stock held by the Bank of New York. While Duer attempted to drive the price of stocks up, the Livingston family attempted to drive the price of stocks down and in so doing caused a bank run. Macomb and Duer were ruined while the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton managed the crisis [2] by providing hundreds of thousands of dollars in securities for the troubled banks. During the panic, securities lost 25% of their value in two weeks. However, soon after Hamilton intervened, the financial situation returned to normal.

  1. Wall Street's First Collapse Thomas Fleming | American Heritage | Winter 2009 | Volume 58, Issue 6 – Speculators caused a stock market crash in 1792, forcing the federal government to bail out New York bankers— and the nation: Wall Street's first bubble swelled burst in the spring of 1792, exerting a profound effect on American politics and society. Nine years after the Treaty of Paris and the acknowledgement of the former colonies— independence, both Europe and America lay in turmoil. The French Revolution was showing its first symptoms of radical violence. In March an assassin's bullet felled Sweden's King Gustav Ⅲ, who had called for a crusade against France. In the United States, President Washington struggled to fight a war against British-backed Indians in the Midwest. Closer to home, a savage feud had exploded between his secretary of state, Thomas Jefferson, and his secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton. http://www.americanheritage.com/content/wall-street%E2%80%99s-first-collapse
  2. The U.S. Panic of 1792: Financial Crisis Management and the Lender of Last Resort David J. Cowen, Independent Scholar; Richard Sylla, New York University; Robert E. Wright, New York University; Draft of May 30, 2006 – Abstract: During the US financial panic of 1792, Wall Street's first crash, securities prices lost nearly a quarter of their value in two weeks. Nonetheless, the crisis, which came when the modern U.S. markets were less than two years old, is off the screens of most scholars, including even financial historians. In part that is because the crisis was managed incredibly well, mostly by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. Hence, there was almost no economic fallout for the US economy from the financial crisis. This makes the event worth studying. It is also worth studying because of the crisis management techniques Hamilton invented at the time, many of which later became theoretical and practical standards of central bank behavior in crises. Among other things, Hamilton invented and implemented "Bagehot's rules" for central-bank crisis management nine decades before Walter Bagehot wrote about them in Lombard Street. – http://www.helsinki.fi/iehc2006/papers1/Sylla.pdf [pdf]
1792 – The US dollar was created on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth slightly more than the US dollar.

1796

1796 – "Panic of 1796–1797" begins with a series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets that led to broader commercial downturns in both Britain and the United States. In the U.S., problems first emerged when the Bubble of land speculation burst in 1796. The crisis deepened into a broader depression when the Bank of England suspended specie payments on February 25, 1797 under the Bank Restriction Act 1797. The Bank's directors feared insolvency when English account holders, who were nervous about a possible French invasion, began withdrawing their deposits. In combination with the unfolding collapse of the U.S. real estate market, the Bank of England's action had developing disflationary repercussions in the financial and commercial markets of the coastal United States and the Caribbean through the start of the 19th century.

By 1800, the crisis had resulted in the collapse of many prominent merchant firms in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and the imprisonment of many American debtors. The latter included the famed financier of the revolution Robert Morris and his partner James Greenleaf who were investors in a large tract of land in the Adirondacks of upstate New York.[1][2] James Wilson was forced to spend the rest of his life literally fleeing from creditors until he died at a friend's home in Edenton, North Carolina.[3] George Meade, the grandfather of the American Civil War general George Gordon Meade was ruined by investments in Western land deals and died in bankruptcy due to the panic.[4] Henry Lee Ⅲ fortune was reduced by speculation with Robert Morris. The scandals associated with these and other incidents resulted in the U.S. Congress passing the Bankruptcy Act of 1800. The Bankruptcy Act of 1800 would later be repealed after its three-year duration expired in 1803.

  1. Certain Victims of an International Contagion: The Panic of 1797 and the Hard Times of the Late 1790s in Baltimore Richard S. Chew (2005) Journal of the Early Republichttp://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_the_early_republic/v025/25.4chew.pdf [pdf]
  2. Price stability and financial stability: the historical record. David C.Wheelock; Michael D. Bordo, September 1, 1998, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review.http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-53436087.html
  3. A Brief History of Bankruptcy Law Offices of Amy E. Clark Kleinpeter (Archived from the original)http://web.archive.org/web/20081119174310/http://www.amykleinpeter.com/history
  4. Republic of Debtors: Bankruptcy in the Age of American Independence Bruce H. Mannhttp://eh.net/book_reviews/republic-debtors-bankruptcy-age-american-independence

1799

French Revolution (1789–1799) ends.

November 9, 1799 (18 Brumaire of the Year Ⅷ) – Napoleon Bonaparte stages the coup of 18 Brumaire and installed the Consulate that effectively led to Bonaparte's dictatorship and eventually, in 1804, to his proclamation as Empereur (emperor).

1800

Napoleonic Wars (1800–1815) begin.

1808

1808 – Finnish War (1808–1809) fought between Sweden and Russia begins.

1811

March 3, 1811 – "First" Bank of the United States officially closed its doors.

1812

1812 – Abitur, aka: "Institution of the final examination (1788)", implemented in all Prussian secondary schools, usually after 12 or 13 years of "schooling". The Prussian system instituted compulsory attendance, specific training for teachers, national testing for all students (used to classify children for potential job training), national curriculum set for each grade and mandatory kindergarten. Passing the Abitur was a pre-requisite to entering the learned professions and the civil service. In 1834 it became the only university entrance exam in Prussia, and it remained so in all states of Germany until 2004.
June 18, 1812 – February 18, 1815 – "War of 1812" begins between the United States on the one hand and the British Empire, it's former loyalists from the American Revolution and the Indian Confederacy, led by Chief Tecumseh, on the other. The War was waged primarily over trade and commerce by opportunists and the "Bank of England" over the re-establishment of the "U.S. Bank" charter that expired in 1811 and was directly related to the ongoing conflicts between France and Britain to which the U.S. remained neutral. "Investors" seeking to gain from the failure of the First U.S. Bank and the massive debt the U.S. was still burdened with after the Revolutionary War, began a campaign led by a group of newly elected, young, politicians dubbed the "War Hawks" to encourage a war based economy along with a new complimentary privatized central banking system. The War resulted in a "Status quo ante bellum" with no boundary changes but also resulted in the defeat of Tecumseh's Indian Confederacy, that relied upon support from Britain, and ended plans for an Independent Indian state in the Midwest.

  1. #Harper, Austerity, Central Banks, Neos, War Hawks, 1812 and You Posted on September 7, 2012 by @opHarperhttps://dumpharper.wordpress.com/2012/09/07/harper-austerity-central-banks-neos-war-hawks-1812-and-you/

1816

1816 – The Second Bank of the United States was chartered under the administration of U.S. President James Madison. It was founded with a mandate similar to that of the previous "First" Bank of the United States whose charter had expired five years prior. Due to the costs of "War of 1812", many banks had over-issued their currency from making loans to the government. In order to protect the banking industry, Congress suspended redemption of paper money in gold or silver. Instead of just keeping merely the banks solvent, this measure allowed them to further lend money. Soon the entire U.S. banking system was in chaos. The Bank mandates were to issue currency, purchase government debt, and serve as the official depository for Treasury funds and the Bank was to raise $7 million in as reserves but never acquired more than $2.5 million. In 1818, the Bank had $2.36 million in reserves, and $21.8 million of notes and deposits on record giving it a reserve ratio of 0.11. Within one and half years the bank had added $19.2 million to the Nation's money supply thus sparking an economic boom. As a result of soaring prices from currency devaluation the bank became in danger of being unable to honour redemptions on its reserves. To prevent such a calamity, the bank decreased the money supply from $21.9 million to $11.5 million. The 47% reduction in money supply led to a text-book example of a deflationary bust caused by manipulation of the money supply. The banking system would ultimately be required to honour their obligations. This would result in widespread bankruptcies, as loans would be need to be called in to cover depositor withdrawals. The most politically viable option to prevent this was to establish a central bank to function as the lender of last resort.

1819

1819 – "Panic of 1819" begins as the first major financial crisis in the United States,[1] and occurred during the political calm of the Era of Good Feelings. The new nation previously had faced a depression in the late 1780s, following the war of independence, which had led directly to the establishment of the dollar and, perhaps indirectly, to the calls for a Constitutional Convention. It had also experienced another severe economic downturn in the late 1790s, following the Panic of 1797. In the earlier crisis however, the primary cause of economic turmoil originated in foreign trade and the broader Atlantic economy.[2] These crises and others had resulted from international conflicts such as the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812, and had caused widespread domestic foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing. However, things would change for the US economy after the Second Bank of the United States was founded in 1816,[3] in response to the spread of banknotes issued by private banks, due to inflation brought on by the debt following the war.[4] In contrast, the causes of the Panic of 1819 largely originated within the U.S. economy. The panic marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the war and ushered in new financial policies that would shape economic development.

  1. The Panic Of 1819: Reactions and Policies By Murray Newton Rothbard – http://books.google.ca/books?id=TmH6BLCkBj4C

1822

Generation Shift: Gilded Generation begins (1822-1842) [?]

The Gilded Generation is the name coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for the generation of Americans born from 1822 to 1842. This generation included the Gold Rush Forty-niners who made circa-1850 San Francisco, California the most monogenerational city ever seen in America and the most anarchic, with no families or laws, just vigilante justice enforced by hangings. It includes most of the veterans of the American Civil War on both sides. It lended its name to the Gilded Age.

This generation lived a hardscrabble childhood around parents distracted by the Second Great Awakening's spiritual upheavals. They came of age amid rising national tempers, torrential immigration, commercialism, Know Nothing politics, and declining college enrollments. As young adults, many pursued fortunes in frontier boom towns or as fledgling "robber barons". Their Lincoln Shouters and Johnny Rebs rode eagerly into a Civil War that left them decimated, Confederates especially. Having learned to detest moral zealotry, their midlife Presidents and industrialists put their stock in Darwinian economics, Boss Tweed politics, Victorian prudery, and Carnegie's Law of Competition. As elders, they landed on the "industrial scrap heap" of an urbanizing economy that was harsh to most old people.

Altogether, there were about 17 million Americans born between 1822 and 1842. 28 percent were immigrants and 10 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.

The Gilded Generation's typical grandparents were of the Republican Generation. Their parents were of the Compromise Generation and Transcendental Generation. Their children were of the Progressive Generation and Missionary Generation and their typical grandchildren were of the Lost Generation.

1825

1825 – Panic of 1825, aka: "Crisis of 1825", was a stock market crash that started in the Bank of England arising in part out of speculative investments in Latin America, including the imaginary country of Poyais. The crisis was felt most acutely in England where it precipitated the closing of six London banks and sixty country banks in England, but was also manifest in the markets of Europe, Latin America, and the United States. An infusion of gold reserves from the Banque de France saved the Bank of England from complete collapse.

The panic has been referred to as the first modern economic crisis not attributable to an external event, such as a war, and thus the start of modern economic cycles. The period of the Napoleonic Wars had been exceptionally profitable for all sectors of the British financial system, and the expansionist monetary actions taken during transition from wartime to peacetime economy initiated a surge of prosperity and speculative ventures. The stock market boom became a bubble and banks caught up in the euphoria made risky loans.

1830

February 3, 1830 The sovereignty of Greece was confirmed in a London Protocol. The 1830 London Protocol affirmed the rights of Christians in the Ottoman Empire and the rights of Muslims in Greece.

1832

August 30, 1832 – A London Protocol was signed to ratify and reiterate the terms of the Treaty of Constantinople. The Treaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The factors which shaped the treaty included the refusal of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (the future King of Belgium), to assume the Greek throne. He inter alia was not at all satisfied with the Aspropotamos-Zitouni borderline, which replaced the more favorable Arta-Volos line considered by the Great Powers earlier.

1837

December 7, 1837 – December 4, 1838 – "Rebellions of 1837" begin as two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838 that resulted in the Unification of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations in political reform. A key shared goal was responsible government, which was eventually achieved in the incident's aftermath. The rebellions in 1837 must be viewed in the wider context of the late-18th- and early-19th-century Atlantic revolutions. The American Revolutionary war in 1776, the French Revolution of 1789–1799, the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804, the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and Spanish America (1810–1825) were all inspired by the same republican ideals.[1] Even Great Britain's Chartists sought the same democratic goals.

1839

1839–1842 – "First Opium War" begins, Britain imposes unequal treaty on China and takes Hong Kong.
1839–1842 – "First Anglo–Afghan War", aka: "Auckland's Folly", begins between British East India Company and Afghanistan. It was one of the first major conflicts during the "Great Game" strategic 19th century rivalry, conflict and competition for power and influence between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
1839 – "Treaty of London" signed between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia, on the one part, and The Netherlands, on the other. Belgium to form an Independent and Neutral State.
1839 – "Act for the Protection of the Indians in Upper Canada" passed by the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada.

1840

1840's – Absinthe becomes popular after it was given to French soldiers as a Malaria treatment.
1840's – Residential schools are established as part of the government's efforts to force assimilation of Canada's Aboriginal peoples. Many students experienced physical, emotional and sexual abuse. The last residential school in Canada was closed in 1996. Indian residential schools of Canada were a network of "residential" (boarding) schools for Aboriginal peoples of Canada (First Nations [formerly "Indians"], Metis, and Inuit [formerly "Eskimos"]) funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs, and administered by Christian churches, most notably the Catholic Church in Canada and the Anglican Church of Canada. The system had origins in pre-Confederation times, but was primarily active following the passage of the Indian Act in 1876, until the mid-twentieth century. An amendment to the Indian Act in 1920 made attendance at a day, industrial or residential school compulsory for First Nations children and, in some parts of the country, residential schools were the only option. The number of residential schools reached 80 in 1931 but decreased in the years that followed. The last federally-operated residential school was closed in 1996.

1841

February 10, 1841 – "The British North America Act, 1840" (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), aka: "Act of Union 1840", (enacted July 1840) proclaimed by the British Parliament, abolishing the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and establishing a new political entity, the Province of Canada.

1842

August 29, 1842 – "Treaty of Nanjing" signed ending the First Opium War; the first of the unequal treaties between China and foreign imperialist powers, provides extraterritorial rights to all foreigners in China – they are no longer subject to Chinese law.
1842 – Bagot Commission Reports that Indians ought to acquire 'industry and knowledge' and recommends agriculture-based boarding schools, placed far from parental influence. This Report laid the cornerstone for Indian Residential Schools. he root of religious outreach was a desire to save souls from hell's fire while filling up the pews-goals complementary to the policy of assimilation adopted by the federal government at that time.

1843

Generation Shift: Progressive Generation begins (1843-1859) [?]

The Progressive Generation is a name coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for those Americans born from 1843 to 1859. The Progressives were caught in an odd warp of history, as the Civil War saeculum did not have a Hero (or Civic) archetype.

The Progressives spent their childhood shell-shocked by sectionalism and the American Civil War. Overawed by older "bloody-shirt" veterans, they came of age cautiously, pursuing refinement and expertise more than power. In the shadow of Reconstruction, they earned their reputation as well-behaved professors and lawyers, calibrators and specialists, civil servants and administrators. In midlife, their mild commitment to social melioration was whipsawed by the passions of youth. They matured into America's genteel yet juvenating Rough Riders in the era of Sigmund Freud's "talking cure" and late-Victorian sentimentality. After busting trusts and achieving progressive procedural reforms, their elders continued to urge tolerance on less conciliatory juniors.

Altogether, there were about 22 million Americans born from 1843 to 1859. 27 percent of them were immigrants and 9 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.

The Progressives' typical grandparents were of the Compromise Generation. Their parents were of the Transcendental Generation and Gilded Generation. Their children were of the Missionary Generation and Lost Generation; their typical grandchildren were of the G.I. Generation.

1844

1844 – Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the "Bank Charter Act 1844" under the government of Robert Peel. The Act restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England and required new notes to be backed fully by gold or government debt. The government retained the power to suspend the Act in case of financial crisis, and this in fact happened several times: in 1847 and 1857, and during the 1866 Overend Gurney crisis. The limitations of the 1844 Act only affected banks in England and Wales, and today three commercial banks in Scotland and four in Northern Ireland continue to issue their own sterling banknotes, regulated by the Bank of England.

1845

1845 – Government reports to the legislative assembly of Upper Canada and recommends that Indian boarding schools be set up.

1847

1847 – Egerton Ryerson's study of Indian education is carried out at the request of the Assistant Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. This study becomes the model for future Indian Residential Schools. Ryerson's report to Indian Affairs stated: "The education of Indians consists not merely of training the mind but of a weaning from the habits and feelings of their ancestors and the acquirements of the language, arts and customs of civilized life". He suggests a partnership between government and church and that schooling be of a religious nature.

1848

March 24, 1848 – First Schleswig War (1848–1851), aka: "Three Years' War" was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The war also involved troops from Prussia and Sweden and ultimately resulted in a Danish victory. A second conflict, the Second Schleswig War, erupted in 1864.

1849

August 5, 1849 – France made the coastal area of Guinea a protectorate.

1850

1850 – 1864 – Christian convert Hong Xiuquan leads bloody Taiping Rebellion against Qing Dynasty.
August 10, 1850 – Two "Indian" statutes were passed by the 3rd Parliament of the Province of Canada.

  • "An Act for the Better Protection of the Lands and Property of Indians in Lower Canada" By this was established a commissioner to hold the Indians lands in trust for Indian people but with full power to do what he wished with that property.
  • "An Act where the Better Protection of Indians in Upper Canada imposition, the property occupied or enjoyed by them from trespass and injury" By this no one could deal with Indian lands unless the Crown approved. The Act also gave exemption to Indians from taxation, judgement and seizure as well as prevent the sale of liquor to Indians. At this point in time the Government's main concern was to protect the Indians and their lands from abuse only until such time as they became "civil or assimilated".

1852

1852 – Massachusetts adopts the tax-supported "Prussian Education System" and implements the first compulsory school attendance law for children, dictating that children from age 8 to age 14 must attend twelve weeks of school per year. In the early 1800's American educators were fascinated by German educational trends. Calvin E. Stowe, Henry Barnard, Horace Mann, George Bancroft and Joseph Cogswell all had a vigorous interest in German education. In 1843, Horace Mann traveled to Germany to investigate how the educational process worked. Upon his return to the United States, he lobbied heavily to have the "Prussian model" adopted. Soon New York state set up the same method in 12 different schools on a trial basis.

May 8, 1852 – The international treaty that became known as the "London Protocol" was signed after the First War of Schleswig. It was a revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The second, actual London Protocol was recognized by the five major European powers, including Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom, as well as the Baltic Sea powers of Denmark and Sweden.

The Protocol affirmed the integrity of the Danish federation as a "European necessity and standing principle". Accordingly, the duchies of Schleswig (a Danish fief), and Holstein and Lauenburg (German fiefs) were joined by personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark. However, Frederick Ⅶ of Denmark was childless, so a change in dynasty was imminent and the lines of succession for the duchies and Denmark conflicted. That meant that, contrary to the Protocol, the new King of Denmark would not also be the new duke of Holstein and duke of Lauenburg. So for this purpose, the line of succession to the duchies was modified. Further, it was affirmed that the duchies were to remain as independent entities, and that Schleswig would have no greater constitutional affinity to Denmark than Holstein.

The major powers primarily wanted to ensure, by guaranteeing Denmark's territorial integrity, that the strategically significant port of Kiel would not fall into Prussian hands.[3] Eleven years later, this treaty became the trigger for the German–Danish war of 1864. Prussia and Austria declared Denmark in violation of the Protocol, by the November Constitution, which Christian Ⅸ of Denmark signed on November 18, 1863.[4] After an initial period of joint Austro–Prussian administration, Kiel was ultimately delivered to Prussia in 1867.

1853

1853 – Canadian pound switches to the Canadian dollar when the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act. Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized.

1856

1856 – 1860 – Second Opium War begins; Britain and France defeat China and impose harsh Treaties of Tientsin. British, French, Americans, and Russians were permitted to install legations in Beijing, ten additional ports would be opened to foreign trade, foreigners would be permitted to travel through the interior, and reparations would be paid to Britain and France. In addition, the Russians signed the separate Treaty of Aigun which gave them coastal land in northern China. The defeat of its military by a much smaller Western army showed the weakness of the Qing Dynasty and began a new age of imperialism in China.

1857

1857 – Decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the US dollar unit.
June 10, 1857 – "Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province, and to Amend the Laws Relating to Indians", aka: "Gradual Civilization Act" passed by the 5th Parliament of the Province of Canada, to assimilate Indians.

September 1857 – "Panic of 1857" begins in the United States. The Panic was primarily caused by the declining international economy and the over expansion of the domestic economy. Due to the interconnectedness of the world economy by the time of the 1850s, the financial crisis was the world's first world-wide economic crisis. Near the end of the Panic, in 1859, tensions between the "North" and "South" began increasing.

1858

June 1858 – "Treaty of Tien-tsin" signed ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856-1860). France, United Kingdom, Russia, and the United States were the parties involved. These treaties opened more Chinese ports (see Treaty of Nanking) to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in the Chinese capital Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, and legalised the import of opium.

1859

1860

Generation Shift: Missionary Generation begins (1860-1882) [?]

The Missionary Generation is the designation given by Strauss and Howe in their book Generations (ISBN 0688119123) to that generation in the United States of America born from 1860 to 1882. They became the indulged home-and-hearth children of the post-Civil War era. They came of age as labor anarchists, campus rioters, and ambitious first graduates of black and women's colleges. In rising adulthood, they had an Awakening that had given birth to the Bible Belt, to Christian socialism, to Greenwich Village, to the Wobblies, and to renascent labor, temperance, and women's suffrage movements. Their young adults pursued rural populism, settlement house work, missionary crusades, and muckrake journalism. In midlife, their Decency brigades and fundamentalists imposed Prohibition, cracked down on immigration, and organized vice squads. In elderhood, they presided over the twin emergencies of the Great Depression and World War II. Their elder elite became the Wise Old Men who enacted a New Deal (and Social Security) for the benefit of youth, led a global war against fascism, and reaffirmed America's highest ideals during a transformative era in history.

In Strauss and Howe's Generations categorization, The Missionaries' typical grandparents were of the Transcendental Generation. Their parents were of the Gilded Generation and Progressive Generation. Their children were of the Lost Generation and G.I. Generation; their typical grandchildren were of the Silent Generation.

23% of the Missionaries were immigrants; 1% were slaves at any point in their lives.

1861

January 2, 1861 – William Ⅰ, aka: Wilhelm Ⅰ, becomes the King of Prussia until March 9, 1888. During his reign William saw Prussia through the Second Schleswig War, the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War.
April 12, 1861 - May 9, 1865 – American Civil War, aka: "War between the States", begins between the United States, the "Union" aka: “North” and the Confederate States of America, aka: the "Confederacy" or "South", several Southern states declared their secession from the Union.
1861 – Morphine, a derivative of opium, is widely used to relieve the suffering of wounded soldiers during the U.S. Civil War. Union Army doctors issue nearly ten million opium pills to Northern soldiers. Morphine and opium addiction is so common among Civil War veterans throughout the late nineteenth century that addiction becomes known as "the army disease".
1861 – New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the US dollar unit.

1862

1862 – King Wilhelm Ⅰ, (2 January 1861 - 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 - 9 March 1888), appoints Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister of Prussia to increase Prussian supremacy, influence and unification among the German states.

1864

February 1 – October 30, 1864 – Second Schleswig War, aka: "German–Danish War of 1864", begins as Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig and was part of the wars of German unification. In much the same way as the First Schleswig War, Denmark fought Prussia and Austria contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The war ends with the signing of the Treaty of Vienna between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Kingdom of Denmark on October 30, 1864. Based on the terms of the treaty, Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein. Disputes over the administration of the two provinces would lead to the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. It was the last victorious conflict of the Austrian Empire/Austria-Hungary in its history.

1865

April 15, 1865 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) assassinated.
May 9, 1865 – U.S. Civil War Ends by declaration (last shot fired June 22, 1865).
1865 – Newfoundland adopts a decimal system based but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the US dollar. the Newfoundland dollar while it existed, was worth slightly more than the Canadian colonial dollar.

1866

June 15 – August 23, 1866 – Austro-Prussian War, aka: "Seven Weeks War", occurs between Prussia, allied with Italy, and Austria, seconded by Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, Hanover, Baden, and several smaller German states. It was provoked by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as a step toward the unification of Germany under Prussian dominance.
1866 – The Panic of 1866 international financial downturn begins.

  • In England, the expansionary stage of the Panic began in 1861 due to the growth and evolution of banking in England, the credit expansion initiated by the Credit Foncier in France played a key role. This expansion drove up the price of intermediate goods, construction and cotton-related industries and persisted at a rapid pace until panic broke out in 1866, due to a series of spectacular failures, the most famous of which was that of Overend Gurney in London. At this time, as occurred in 1847 and 1857, Peel's Bank Charter Act was temporarily suspended with the purpose of injecting liquidity into the economy and defending the Bank of England's gold reserves. France's first investment bank, the Crédit Mobiliaire, failed. The above gave rise to a depression which, as always, affected principally the sector of railroad construction, and unemployment spread mostly to capital-goods industries.
  • Between 1859 and 1864, Spain engaged in substantial credit expansion which fostered widespread malinvestment, particularly in railroads. Beginning in 1864 it suffered a recession which reached its peak in 1866.
  • In Italy, the end of the U.S. Civil War, brought the cancellation of war contracts, demobilization, and renewed competition from cheap U.S. cotton, sent the economic tremors that pushed Italy over the monetary precipice. A run on the bank ensued and on May 1, 1866, the government decreed the inconvertibility of bank notes – the "Corso Forzoso”. Before Corso Forzoso ("forced circulation"), Italy was on a gold and silver bimetallic standard, and holders of Italian bank notes could redeem them in gold and silver specie. As the government paid off its debts to the National Bank of Italy in gold, the bank was able to restore convertibility, and on April 7, 1881, the Corso Forzoso came to an end
  1. The panic of 1866 with its lessons on the currency act By Robert Baxter Esq., London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1866http://books.google.ca/books?id=YdM9AAAAcAAJ
  2. Panic of 1866 Mises Wiki: last modified 15 January 2011http://wiki.mises.org/wiki/Panic_of_1866
  3. Where it all began: lending of last resort and the Bank of England during the Overend-Gurney panic of 1866 Marc Flandreau and Stefano Ugolini Working Paper 2011/03 – Abstract: The National Monetary Commission was deeply concerned with importing best practice. One important focus was the connection between the money market and international trade. It was said that Britain's lead in the market for "acceptances" originating in international trade was the basis of its sterling predominance. In this article, we use a so-far unexplored source to document the portfolio of bills that was brought up to the Bank of England for discount and study the behavior of the Bank of England during the crisis of 1866 (the so-called Overend-Gurney panic) when the Bank began adopting lending of last resort policies (Bignon, Flandreau and Ugolini 2011). We compare 1865 (a "normal" year) to 1866. Important findings include: (a) the statistical predominance of foreign bills in the material brought to the Bank of England; (b) the correlation between the geography of bills and British trade patterns; (c) a marked contrast between normal times lending and crisis lending in that main financial intermediaries and the "shadow banking system" only showed up at the Bank's window during crises; (d) the importance of money market investors (bills brokers) as chief conduit of liquidity provision in crisis; (e) the importance of Bank of England's supervisory policies in ensuring lending-of-last-resort operations without enhancing moral hazard. An implication of our findings is that Bank of England's ability to control moral hazard for financial intermediaries involved in acceptances was another reason for the rise of sterling as an international currency. – http://www.norges-bank.no/templates/article____78145.aspx

1867

July 1, 1867 – Colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were united in a federation called the "Dominion of Canada" and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar. The British North America Act gives the federal government responsibility for aboriginals and their lands.

1869

June 22, 1869 – "An Act respecting Indians", aka: "Gradual Enfranchisement Act of 1869", "The Indian Act." 43 V., c.28, s.1 enacted by HER Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada.

1870

The Great Binge (1870–1914) begins.

The Great Binge is a period in history when various drugs were developed and widely consumed, such as cocaine, opium and heroin, alongside strong alcoholic drinks, such as Absinthe, without prohibition and in quantities that nowadays are considered excessive.

1870–1910 – Period of assimilation in Canada, where the clear objective of both missionaries and government was to assimilate Aboriginal children into the lower fringes of mainstream society.
1870–1871 – "Franco-Prussian War", aka: "Franco-German War", begins as a conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German military power and imperialism. It was provoked by Prussian chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, as part of his plan to create a unified German Empire. Besides establishing the Third French Republic and the German Empire, the Franco-Prussian War had other far-reaching effects. Desire for revenge guided French policy for the following half-century. Prussian militarism had triumphed and laid the groundwork for German imperialistic ventures. The Papal States, no longer protected by Napoleon Ⅲ, were annexed by Italy, which thus completed its unification. These and other effects were links in the chain of causes that set off World War I.

1871

1871 – Prince Edward Island adopts a decimal system based on the US dollar unit. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873.
1871 – Ontario introduces compulsory school laws. Parents were obliged by threat of fine to have children attend school for at least four months a year between the ages of seven and twelve. Legislation in 1891 raised the limits to eight and fourteen and required a child to remain at school, even after reaching fourteen, until the end of term. The new law was more definite in stipulating penalties for parents, who refused to comply and for employers who hired children who should have been at school.
January 18, 1871 – William Ⅰ proclaimed German Emperor, "German Emperor William Ⅰ, King of Prussia", in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles Palace. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation (1867–1871) was transformed into the German Empire ("Kaiserreich", 1871–1918). After the First World War the Hall of Mirrors was chosen as the site for the signing of The Treaty of Versailles as a sign of the destruction of The German Empire at its birthplace.
April 1871 – Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act http://canadianeconomy.gc.ca/english/economy/1871Uniform_Currency_Act.html
1871 – 1875 – The first five numbered treaties deal with native lands in northwestern Ontario and what is now southern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta.

1873

1873 – Prince Edward island joined the Dominion of Canada becoming the 7th Province. The currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system.
1873 – British Columbia begins compulsory schooling, one year after introducing free public education. Children were required to attend between ages seven and fourteen for periods to be determined by local trustees.
September 19, 1873 – Wall Street Panic of 1873 begins a severe international economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879, and even longer in some countries. The depression was known as the "Great Depression" until the 1930s, but is sometimes now known as the "Long Depression".[1] The panic was caused by the fall in demand for silver internationally, which followed Germany's decision to abandon the silver standard in the wake of the Franco-Prussian war.[2]

February 12, 1873 – U.S President Grant signs the Fourth Coinage Act (H. R. 2934) enacted by the United States Congress into law. Gold becomes the only metallic standard in the United States, hence putting the United States de facto on the gold standard and demonetizing silver. The Act had the immediate effect of depressing silver prices which Western mining interests, and others who wanted silver in circulation years later, labeled this measure the "Crime of '73"[1].

The U.S. did not actually adopt the gold standard de jure until 1900, following a lengthy period of debate that was made famous by William Jennings Bryan's cross of gold speech at the 1896 Democratic convention. By this time, most major nations had moved to a gold standard. The only major nation that continued on the silver standard into the 20th century was China. China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard in 1935.

November 5, 1873 – Canada’s first Prime Minister, Conservative Sir John A. Macdonald, resigned due to allegations of bribery and corruption related to the Pacific Scandal when evidence and was revealed, by newspapers of the era, that Macdonald had received about $360,000 in election campaign funds for the 1872 federal election from railroad baron Sir Hugh Allan, who in turn for his help, was to be provided exclusive rights to build the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railroad.

1874

1874 – Diacetylmorphine, later known as Heroin, first synthesized by English chemist C. R. Alder Wright at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London.

1876

1876 – Nicholas Flood Davin was sent to the US to study the Indian education system. Davin recommended that four denominational industrial boarding schools be established so that Indian children could learn Christian morality and work habits away from the influences of the home. Davin's report had an important influence in shaping the early residential school system.
April 12, 1876 – "An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians", aka: "The Indian Act, 1876", passed, essentially extinguishing any remaining self-government for natives and making them wards of the federal government.

1877

April 24, 1877 – Russo–Turkish War of 1877–1878 begins in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition, led by the Russian Empire and composed of several Balkan countries.

1878

1878-1880 – Second Anglo–Afghan War begins between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan.
March 3, 1878 – Russo–Turkish War ends with the Treaty of San Stefano and Treaty of Berlin. Russian victory reestablish the Bulgarian state; de jure independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro from Ottoman Empire; Kars becomes a part of the Russian Empire.

1880

July 3, 1880 – Madrid Conference held between the Sultan of Morocco and several European countries as well as the U.S. to secure general freedom of trade within Morocco. The Sultan was forced to accept certain conditions to assure its "sovereignty" would be guaranteed.

1881

1881 – France Protectorate proclaimed further inland, took control of much of the rest of Guinea, annexed it under the name Rivières du Sud.

1882

1882-1883 – French Indochina War between France and China begins over Annam modern day Vietnam.
1882 – Anglo–Egyptian War erupts between Egypt and Sudan against the U.K. British forces invaded and occupied Egypt to protect British interests, investments and to exercise control over the Suez Canal until gradual control was given back with the Anglo–Egyptian Treaty of 1922 and Anglo–Egyptian Treaty of 1936.

1883

Generation Shift: Lost Generation begins (1883-1900) [?]

The term Lost Generation was coined by Gertrude Stein to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris in the 1920s and 1930s. Significant members included Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein herself.

More generally, the term is being used for the generation of young people coming of age in the United States during and shortly after World War I. For this reason, the generation is sometimes known as the World War I Generation or the Roaring 20s Generation. In Europe, they are most often known as the Generation of 1914, named after the year World War I began. In France, the country in which many expatriates settled, they are called the Génération au Feu.

William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations list this generation's birth years as 1883 to 1900. Their typical grandparents were the Gilded Generation; their parents were the Progressive Generation and Missionary Generation. Their children were the G.I. Generation and Silent Generation; their typical grandchildren were Baby boomers.

The "Lost Generation" were said to be disillusioned by the senseless slaughter of the First World War, cynical, disdainful of the Victorian notions of morality and propriety of their elders. Like most attempts to pigeon-hole entire generations, this over-generalization is true for some individuals of the generation and not true of others.

It was fairly common among members of this group to complain that American artistic culture lacked the breadth of European work – leading many members to spend large amounts of time in Europe – and/or that all topics worth treating in a literary work had already been covered. Nevertheless, this selfsame period saw an explosion in American literature and art, which is now often considered to include some of the greatest literary classics produced by American writers. This generation also produced the first flowering of jazz music, arguably the first distinctly American artform.

August 25, 1883 – French Indochina War ends as France and China sign a treaty recognizing French protectorates over northern Vietnam (Tonkin) and central Vietnam (Annam); southern Vietnam (Cochin China) was already under French control. Ten years later Siam relinquished to the French its claims to Laos, which was incorporated into a federation known as French Indochina.

1884

1884 – 1885 – Berlin Conference, aka: "Congo Conference", Berlin West Africa Conference, regulates European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period; launched formalization of the "Scramble for Africa" which saw the partition of the continent.
July 5, 1884 – Togoland declared a German protectorate in West Africa until 1916.
1884 – Cocaine praised as "Miracle Cure" as the American medical community embraces cocaine as a miracle cure for a variety of ailments, including, ironically, addiction to morphine and alcohol. The New York Times reports on the new wonder drug: "The new uses to which cocaine has been applied with success in New York… include hayfever, catarrh and toothache and it is now being experimented with in cases of seasickness… All will be given to understand that cocaine will cure the worst cold in the head ever heard of."
1884 – Psychotherapist Sigmund Freud recommends cocaine for a variety of illnesses and for alcohol and morphine addictions, many of his patients went on to become addicted to cocaine.

1885

February 27, 1885 – Protectorate of German East Africa (1885–1919) established a German colony in a region that comprised parts of modern day Burundi, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. After World War 1, the 1919 Treaty of Versailles breaks up the Protectorate of German East Africa (1885–1919), giving the north-western area to Belgium as Ruanda-Urundi, the small Kionga Triangle south of the Rovuma River to Portugal to become part of Mozambique, and the remainder to Britain, which named it Tanganyika.
1885 – National Linseed Oil Trust of St. Louis, Missouri formed to protect linseed interests in the United States.
1886 – John Pemberton develops a drink that contained cocaine and caffeine under the trademark Coca Cola. Cocaine was REMOVED from Coca Cola in 1906.
1887 – Oregon becomes the first state to ban the sale of cocaine without a prescription.

1890

1890's – Sears & Roebuck catalogue, which was distributed to millions of Americans homes, offered a syringe and a small amount of cocaine for $1.50.
February 21, 1890 – October 4, 1890 – First Franco-Dahomean War, between France and the Kingdom of Dahomey. French victory incorporated Dahomey into their growing colonial territory in West Africa.
July 2, 1890 – "Sherman Antitrust Act" aka: "1890 Sherman Act", passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts. The Act was a landmark federal statute on United States competition law.

1891

“Why should we expect that Indians alone, of all people, should be quietly ready to give up all old customs and traditions and language, and adopt those of the aggressor upon their soil? The change which we expect the Indian to make, and make so quickly, is a far greater one than is required of any of those nations above enumerated [Germany, Sweden, France, Italy], who have left the shores of one civilized country to come to those of another. With the Indian, the change is a radical one — a change of dress, a change of dwelling, a change in mode of gaining livelihood, a social change, a religious change, an educational change, a totum in toto change. And this — not so much for his own benefit, as for our own convenience. We want the land. We cannot have Indian hunters annoying our farmers and settlers. If the Indian is to remain, we expect him to be a decent neighbour; and to be a decent neighbour, we expect him to accept our religion, our education, our laws, and our customs. We allow him no choice and we allow him no time.” ~ Attributed to E.F. Wilson. Principal of Shingwauk Residential School. May 1891. The Canadian Indian. Vol.1, no.8.

1891 – Guinea constituted as a French colony separate from Senegal.

1892

1892 – Federal government of Canada and churches enter into formal partnership in the operation of Indian boarding and industrial schools.
1892 – 1894 – Second Franco-Dahomean War, between France and the Kingdom of Dahomey. French victory re-incorporated Dahomey into their growing colonial territory in West Africa.

1893

1893 – Guinea renamed French Guinea.

January 1893 – "Panic of 1893", aka: "Panic of '93", "Crisis of 1893", begins as a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893. Similar to the Panic of 1873, it was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing, resulting in a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and the railroad bubble, was a run on the gold supply. The Panic of '93 was the worst economic depression the United States had ever experienced at the time.

  • The Depression of 1893 David O. Whitten, Auburn University, EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. August 14, 2001 – The Depression of 1893 was one of the worst in American history with the unemployment rate exceeding ten percent for half a decade. This article describes economic developments in the decades leading up to the depression; the performance of the economy during the 1890s; domestic and international causes of the depression; and political and social responses to the depression.

    The Depression of 1893 can be seen as a watershed event in American history. It was accompanied by violent strikes, the climax of the Populist and free silver political crusades, the creation of a new political balance, the continuing transformation of the country's economy, major changes in national policy, and far-reaching social and intellectual developments. Business contraction shaped the decade that ushered out the nineteenth century. http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/whitten.panic.1893

1894

1894-1895 – First Sino-Japanese War, former tributary Japan defeats China and takes Korea.
1894 – Kingdom of Dahomey becomes part of French West Africa. French rule lasted until December 11, 1958 when the Republic of Dahomey (1958–1975) was established as a self-governing colony. It attained full independence from France on August 1, 1960 and in 1975 was renamed the "People's Republic of Benin" on November 30, 1975 and was later renamed the "Republic of Benin" on March 1, 1990.

1895

1895 – Diacetylmorphine is independently re-synthesized by German chemist, Felix Hoffmann at the German pharmaceutical drug company Bayer and becomes popular after Bayer begins marketing it as an over-the-counter drug under the trademark name Heroin. Contrary to Bayer's advertising as a "non-addictive morphine substitute", heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of dependence among its users.
1895 – French West Africa was formed, The Federation included Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea (French Guinea), Mali (French Sudan) and Senegal. Later members were Benin (Dahomey), Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) Mauritania and Niger. The Federation was definitively constituted in 1904 and was dissolved in 1958.

1898

April 8, 1898 – Battle of Atbara River, Anglo-Egyptian forces crush 6,000 Sudanese.
April 11, 1898 – U.S. President McKinley asks for Spanish-American War declaration.
April 21, 1898 – Spanish-American War begins. The Spanish-American War of 1898 ended Spain's colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere and secured the position of the United States as a Pacific power.
April 24, 1898 – Spain rejects ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba, declares war on U.S.
April 24, 1898 – U.S. declares war on Spain over Cuba.
June 9, 1898 – China leases Hong Kong's new territories to Britain for 99 years.
July 7, 1898 – U.S. annexes Hawaii.
August 13, 1898 – U.S. captures Manila.
August 15, 1898 – Russia follows U.S. lead and arms some warships with dynamite guns. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/printArticleJpg/9428631/3?print=n
September 2, 1898 – Battle of Omdurman: Lord Kitchener retakes Sudan for Britain; 1st machine gun used in battle.
September 6, 1898 – Lord Kitchener destroys Mahdi's tomb in Omdurman Sudan.
September 21, 1898 – China's empress-mother Ci Xi & emperor De Zong arrested, Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days' Reform in China.
September 29, 1898 – French troops reach Guinea & Sudan and defeated the armies of Samory Toure, a leader of Malinke descent, who resisted French colonization. French Guinea became part of French West Africa. The boundaries of present-day Guinea were set at the turn of the twentieth century by France, Britain and Portugal.
October 18, 1898 – American flag raised in Puerto Rico.
December 10, 1898 – Treaty of Paris of 1898 ends Spanish-American War; Spain loses its last major overseas colonies. US acquires Philippines from Spain for $20million, control over Puerto Rico & Guam and Spain relinquished its claim to Cuba.

1900

Generation Shift: G.I. Generation, aka: The Greatest Generation, begins (1900-1924) [?]

The G.I. Generation is the generation of Americans that fought and won World War Ⅱ, later to become the Establishment and the parents who had a generation gap with their Boomer children. Their Depression was The Great One, their war was The Big One, their prosperity was the legendary Happy Days. The generation is also known as the Greatest Generation (after Tom Brokaw's book), the World War Ⅱ Generation, the Veteran Generation, the Depression Generation, Builders, and the Traditional Generation or Traditionalists. The name "G.I. Generation" was coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe for their book Generations, who put its birthdates from 1901 to 1924. The term G.I. could stand for "government issue" or "general issue" and this generation stands for both.

The G.I. Generation developed a special and "good kid" reputation as the beneficiaries of new playgrounds, scouting clubs, vitamins, and child-labor restrictions. They came of age with the sharpest rise in schooling ever recorded. As young adults, their uniformed corps patiently endured depression and heroically conquered foreign enemies. In a midlife subsidized by the G.I. Bill, they built gleaming suburbs, invented miracle vaccines, plugged "missile gaps," and launched moon rockets. Their unprecedented grip on the Presidency began with a New Frontier, a Great Society, and Model Cities, but wore down through Vietnam, Watergate, deficits, and problems with "the vision thing." As "senior citizens," they moved into busy Sun City communities safeguarded their own "entitlements," but have had little influence over culture and values.

Their typical grandparents were of the Progressive Generation. Their parents were of the Missionary Generation and Lost Generation. Their children were of the Silent Generation and Baby Boomers. Their typical grandchildren were of Generation X.

1900 – Journal of the American Medical Association published an editorial stating, "Negroes in the South are reported as being addicted to a new form of vice - that of 'cocaine sniffing' or the 'coke habit.'" Some newspapers later claimed cocaine use caused blacks to rape white women and was improving their pistol marksmanship. Chinese immigrants were blamed for importing the opium-smoking habit to the U.S. The 1903 blue-ribbon citizens' panel, the Committee on the Acquirement of the Drug Habit concluded, "If the Chinaman cannot get along without his dope we can get along without him."
January – May 1900 – The Boxer Rebellion breaks out in China's capital of Peking. The "Boxers" are a group of Chinese that want to rid China of the western influence. The Boxers are eventually supported by the Manchu leaders. In 1900, the Boxers attack foreigners in the capital city, Peking.
June 1900 – U.S., British, Russian, French, Italian, and Japanese troops enter China to quell Boxer disturbances.
June 21, 1900 – Empress Dowager Cixi declares war against the foreign powers.
July 1900 – German Kaiser Wilhelm Ⅱ sends fleet to Shandong China, urges them to take no prisoners like Attila and the Huns. http://h-net.org/~german/gtext/kaiserreich/china.html

1901

January 1, 1901 – The Hague Arbitration Court organized.
February 25, 1901 – United States Steel Corporation formed, the incorporation marked the birth of history's first billion-dollar company. After financing the creation of attorney Elbert H. Gary's Federal Steel Company in 1898, J.P.Morgan merges it with ten steel companies and iron businesses, including his American Bridge Company (1900), American "Consolidated" Steel and Wire Company (1892) owned by William Edenborn, Carnegie Steel Company (1873) owned by Andrew Carnegie, Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines (1893) owned by John D. Rockefeller, American Tin Plate Company (1898), American Steel Hoop Company and American Sheet Steel Metal (1900) owned by William Henry "Judge" Moore, National Tube Company and National Steel Company.
May 3, 1901 – Civil Government established in the Philippines.
September 6, 1901 – President McKinley shot by an assassin. Dies on September 14. Theodore Roosevelt becomes President.

1902

May 20, 1902 – Cuba gained formal independence from the U.S. Republic of Cuba, aka: Cuban Republic established.

1903

February 14, 1903 – Cabinet Department of Commerce and Labor created.
March 17, 1903 – Panama Canal Treaty with Colombia ratified by the United States Senate.
July 4, 1903 – Pacific Cable completed.
August 17, 1903 – Panama Canal Treaty Rejected by Colombian Senate.
October 17, 1903 – Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in London decides in favor of the United States.
November 6, 1903 – The United States recognizes the new Republic of Panama.
November 18, 1903 – Canal Treaty with Panama signed by Secretary Hay.
December 2, 1903 – Panama Canal Treaty Ratified by Panama.

1904

1904–1958 – Kingdom of Dahomey renamed French Dahomey as a colony of France in French West Africa.
1904 – France and Spain carve out zones of influence in Morocco.
February 23, 1904 – Panama Canal Treaty Ratified by U.S. Senate.

1905

1905 – 1906 – First Moroccan Crisis begins between France and Germany as Morocco was one of the few African states not occupied by a European power in 1905. Morocco became the centre of the world's attention as European colonizers gazed hungrily as Morocco's resources and strategically located harbors, and the crisis clearly indicated that Germany's relation with France was at best fragile. It is seen as one of the long term causes of World War One as it led to a breakdown in trust between the major European powers.

1906

January 16th 1906 – The Algeciras Conference held as a result of the First Moroccan Crisis. All the major European powers were represented there as well as the Americans who strongly defended the Kingdom's right to its continued sovereignty. The Algeciras Conference had one aim: to decide what was to be done with regards to Morocco.

June 30, 1906 – U.S. Congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act, which requires truth in labeling and bans adulterated food products and poisonous medicines.

  • Legislation: The Food and Drugs Act of 1906 was the first of more than 200 laws that constitute one of the world's most comprehensive and effective networks of public health and consumer protections. Here are a few of the congressional milestones:
    • The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 was passed after a legally marketed toxic elixir killed 107 people, including many children. The FD&C Act completely overhauled the public health system. Among other provisions, the law authorized the FDA to demand evidence of safety for new drugs, issue standards for food, and conduct factory inspections.
    • The Kefauver-Harris Amendments of 1962, which were inspired by the thalidomide tragedy in Europe (and the FDA's vigilance that prevented the drug's marketing in the United States), strengthened the rules for drug safety and required manufacturers to prove their drugs' effectiveness.
    • The Medical Device Amendments of 1976 followed a U.S. Senate finding that faulty medical devices had caused 10,000 injuries, including 731 deaths. The law applied safety and effectiveness safeguards to new devices.
  • Today, the FDA regulates $1 trillion worth of products a year. It ensures the safety of all food except for meat, poultry and some egg products; ensures the safety and effectiveness of all drugs, biological products (including blood, vaccines and tissues for transplantation), medical devices, and animal drugs and feed; and makes sure that cosmetics and medical and consumer products that emit radiation do no harm. http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/wileyact.htm

1907

1907 – Chief Medical Inspector P.H. Bryce reports numerous deficiencies of the schools to the Department of Indian Affairs. As a result of government inaction, he published his findings in a 1922 book: The Story of a National Crime: Being a Record of the Health Conditions of the Indians of Canada from 1904 to 1921.

August 31, 1907 – Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 between Britain and Russia that solidified boundaries and respective control of Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet. At the time this agreement crushed any chance of Persian autonomy as the idea of a reformed Persian state was not what these powers had in mind since they enjoyed both stability and control in Persia and planned to keep it that way. Overall, the Convention represented a carefully calculated move on each power's part in which they chose to value a powerful alliance over potential sole control over various parts of Central Asia.

Oct. 9, 1907Panic of 1907 aka: 1907 Bankers' Panic, Knickerbocker Crisis, begins with a miscalculated and failed attempt to manipulate the stock prices of the United Copper Company that resulted in the business' bankruptcy. United Copper's collapse sent owners of its stock (holders included institutions as diverse as the brokerage house Gross & Kleeberg and the State Savings Bank of Butte Montana) into insolvency. Furthermore, banks associated with the perpetrators of United Copper's attempted cornering, F. Augustus Heinze and Charles W. Morse, who together served on the boards of six national banks, ten state banks, five trust companies, and four insurance firms, suffered massive runs on their deposits throughout October 1907.

Availability: 1908 http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publication/?pid=106

October 15, 1907 – Stocks start to tumble.
October 21, 1907 – National Bank of Commerce announcement that it would stop accepting checks for the Knickerbocker Trust Company, triggering a run of depositors demanding their funds back and the eventual collapse of the Knickerbocker Trust Company.
October 22, 1907 – The start of the bank run on the Knickerbocker Trust Company.
October 24, 1907 – John Pierpont "J.P." Morgan arranged for a number of bankers to provide the then-colossal sum of $23 million to save "selected" banks and businesses and allow the New York Stock Exchange to continue operating. J.P. Morgan's firm was the transfer agent for that same monopolistic deal so J.P. Morgan was allowed to expand his monopoly in order to save the New York banks.
November. 2, 1907 – Moore & Schley, a major brokerage, nears collapse because its loans were backed by the Tennesee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company (TC&I). Proposal is made for U.S. Steel to purchase TC&I.
November 4, 1907 – President Roosevelt approves of the U.S. Steel's acquisition of the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Company (TC&I).

1908

July 3, 1908 – Young Turk Revolution begins and quickly spread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
August 12, 1908 – First production Ford Model T, aka: "Tin Lizzie", "T-Model Ford", "Model T Ford", "T" (September 1908 – October 1927), was produced by the Ford Motor Company at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan. The Model T left the factory on September 27, 1908 and set 1908 as the historic year that the automobile became popular.

1910

1910–1920 – Mexican Revolution begins based on the peasants' overwhelming demand for land and for social justice. The Mexican Revolution was the largest rebellion in Mexican history.

1910–1911 – Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911). The Supreme Court of the United States found the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and thirty-three other corporations, John D. Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, and five other individual defendants guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anti-competitive actions. The conspiracy was alleged to have been formed in or about the year 1870 by three of the individual defendants, viz.: John D. Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, and Henry M. Flagler. The detailed arguments concerning the alleged conspiracy were arranged with reference to three periods, the first from 1870 to 1882, the second from 1882 to 1899, and the third from 1899 to the time of the filing of the bill. Standard Oil Company conspired to restrain the trade and commerce in petroleum, and to monopolize the commerce in petroleum, in violation of the Sherman Act. Standard Oil was split into many smaller companies in several geographically separate and eventually competing firms. Several individuals, including John D. Rockefeller, were fined. STANDARD OIL CO. OF NEW JERSEY v. U S, 221 U.S. 1 (1910)

221 U.S. 1

STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY et al., Appts.,
v.
UNITED STATES.
No. 398. Argued March 14, 15, and 16, 1910

Ordered for reargument April 11, 1910.

Reargued January 12, 13, 16, and 111, 1911.

1911

April 1911 – French sent troops to Fez to put down a revolt in Morocco and, by implication, to extend their influence over that country.
July 1, 1911 – Agadir Crisis, aka: Second Moroccan Crisis, The Morocco Crisis of 1911, begins as Germany dispatches a gun-boat to the Moroccan port of Agadir to intimidate the French. The Germans felt provoked by French military intervention in Morocco, which amounted in effect to the establishment of a French protectorate in Morocco. This action by France ran counter to the Algeciras Agreement of 1906 and the Franco-German agreement on Morocco of 1909. http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/world-war-100-1-july-the-agadir-crisis-1911
September 29, 1911 – October 18, 1912 – Italo–Turkish War, aka: Turco–Italian War, between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy begins as Italian troops, facing resistance from Libyans and Turkish troops, invade Libya and occupy Tripoli. The Italo-Turkish war was one of the first conflicts involving the use of modern military technology. Italian troops carried out the first aerial reconnaissance flights and bombing raids in history, and travelled in armored cars. It is estimated that 20,000 Turks and Libyans were killed over the course of the war, half as a result of executions and reprisals and was described by Lenin as a "perfected, civilized bloodbath."
October 3, 1911 – Italian troops invade Libya and occupy Tripoli. Face resistance from Libyans and Turkish troops.

1912

May 16, 1912 – February 26, 1913 – Pujo Committee "Money Trust" Wall Street Banking Cartel Investigation, aka: "Money Trust Investigation: Investigation of Financial and Monetary Conditions in the United States Under House Resolutions Nos. 429 and 504 : 1912-1913", was a special subcommittee convened by the Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee, Arsene P. Pujo. Its purpose was to investigate the "money trust," a small group of Wall Street bankers that exerted powerful control over the nation's finances. The committee's majority report concluded that a group of financial leaders had abused the public trust to consolidate control over many industries. The Pujo Committee report created a climate of public opinion that lead to the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914.

The hearings were conducted between May 16, 1912 and February 26, 1913. The transcript of the hearings was published in three volumes. It is presented in the original 29 parts with the index, a table of interlocking directorates of 18 financial institutions, and the majority/minority report of the committee. http://publicintelligence.net/pujo-committee-money-trust-wall-street-banking-cartel-investigation-1912-1913/

January 1, 1912 – Sun Yat-sen forms Chinese Republic.
January 1, 1912 – The Republic of China is established.
January 9, 1912 – US marines invade Honduras.
January 10, 1912 – Caillaux government in France resigns.
January 23, 1912 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.
January 29, 1912 – Martial law declared in textile strike in Lawrence, MA.
February 12, 1912 – China adopts Gregorian calendar.
February 12, 1912 – Last Ch'ing (Manchu) emperor of China, Hsuan T'ung, abdicates.
February 26 1912 – Coal miners strike in England (settle on 03/01).
March 5, 1912 – Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines.
March 14, 1912 – King Vittorio Emanuel Ⅲ of Rome injured during assassination attempt.
March 30, 1912 – French protectorate in Morocco established.
April 4, 1912 – Army fires on striking mine workers at Lena-gold fields Siberia.
April 11, 1912 – Cornerstone of Technion in Haifa Palestine laid.
April 13, 1912 – Royal Flying Corps forms (later RAF).
May 4, 1912 – Italian mariners occupy Turkish Island of Rhodes.
May 30, 1912 – US Marines sent to Nicaragua.
March 30, 1912 -Treaty of Fez signed by France and Spain, Morocco becomes a protectorate of France, Spain gains land from Northern Morocco (becomes Spanish Morocco), Germany ceded France a small area of territory (now part of Chad). Treaty of Fez granted the concession for exploitation of the iron mines of Mount Uixan to the Spanish Rif Mines Company, which was also given permission to build a railroad to connect the mines with Melilla.
May 31, 1912 – US marines land on Cuba.
June 5, 1912 – US marines invade Cuba (3nd time).
June 7, 1912 – US army tests 1st machine gun mounted on a plane.
July 12, 1912 – 1st foreign feature film exhibited in NYC USA "Queen Elizabeth".
July 15, 1912 – British National Health Insurance Act goes into effect.
July 16, 1912 – Naval torpedo launched from an airplane patents by B A Fiske.
July 25, 1912 – Comoros proclaimed a French colonies.
July 31, 1912 – US government prohibits movies & photos of prize fights (censorship).
August 14, 1912 – 2,500 US marines invade Nicaragua; US remains until 1925.
August 25, 1912 – Different nationalities battle with each other in Macedonia.
September 15, 1912 – War between Turkey & Montenegro breaks out in Albania.
September 29, 1912 – French/British troops lands on Samoa.
October 7, 1912 – The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.
October 8, 1912 – 1st Balkan War begins – Montenegro declares war on Turkey.
October 17, 1912 – Bulgaria, Greece & Serbia declares war on Turkey.
October 18, 1912 – Italo-Turkish war ends.
October 19, 1912 – Tripoli (Libya) passes from Turkish to Italian control.
October 26, 1912 – Serbian troops over run Skopje (Uskup).
November 5, 1912 – Bulgarian troops in Constantinople blockade drinking water.
November 5, 1912 – Woodrow Wilson defeats Theodore Roosevelt & President Taft.
November 18, 1912 – Albania declares independence from Turkey.
November 25, 1912 – Socialist International rejects that world war is coming.
November 28, 1912 – Albania declares it's Indepenence from Turkey.
December 3, 1912 – Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece & Bulgaria sign weapons pact.
December 3, 1912 – First Balkan War: The Naval Battle of Elli takes place.
December 6, 1912 – China votes for universal human rights.
December 16, 1912 – Austria-Hungary engage in conflict with Serbia.
December 21, 1912 – Denmark, Norway & Sweden declare neutrality in Comende war.
December 28, 1912 – National Council of Young Israel convenes.

1913

December 1, 1913 – Henry Ford and the Ford Motor Company introduces the assembly line for the Ford Model T (1908-1927).
December 23, 1913 Federal Reserve System, aka: Federal Reserve, Fed, was created with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act.

1914

The Great Binge (1870–1914) ends.

January 1, 1914 – Northern & Southern Nigeria united in British colony of Nigeria.
January 6, 1914 – Stock brokerage firm of Merrill Lynch founded.
January 7, 1914 – 1st steamboat passes through Panama Canal.
February 2, 1914 – Tanganyika Railway opens in German East Africa, modern day Tanzania but the project was thwarted by the outbreak of World War 1.
March 16, 1914 – Dr. Robert H. Goddard flight tests his first liquid-fuel rocket.
June 27, 1914 – U.S. signs treaty of commerce with Ethiopia.

World War Ⅰ (1914-1919) begins.

June 28, 1914 – "July Crisis" begins World War Ⅰ (1914-1919) aka: The Great War, WWI, the First World War begins when Austria invades Siberia and Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by young Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. Considered the casus belli of World War I.
June 29, 1914 – Khioniya "Jina" Guseva attempts to assassinate Grigori Rasputin, a Russian monk who acted as close adviser to the Tsar and (most especially) Tsarina of Russia. Rasputin was a member of the "Green Hand," a secret order presumably backed by Russia's Austrian enemies. Most recently and reliably, Russian investigator Oleg Shishkin linked Rasputin's mysterious friends to a Berlin-inspired conspiracy which included German occult lodges and members of the ethnic-German Baltic nobility. Their secret brotherhood, Baltikum, used a green swastika as its symbol.
June 29, 1914 – Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi's 1st arrest, campaigning for Indian rights in South Africa.
July 5, 1914 – Germany offers "the blank cheque" to Austria-Hungary to fight against Russia in Serbia.
July 7, 1914 – 1st patent for liquid-fueled rocket design, US patent #1,102,653 Rocket Apparatus, granted to Dr. Robert H. Goddard. http://www.google.com/patents/US1102653
July 14, 1914 – 2nd patent for liquid-fueled rocket design, US patent #1,103,503 Rocket Apparatus, granted to Dr. Robert H. Goddard. http://www.google.com/patents/US1103503
July 23, 1914 – Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia that effectively revoked Serbia's national sovereignty.
July 28, 1914 – World War Ⅰ (1914-1919) aka: The Great War, WWI, First World War, begins when Austria-Hungary formally declares of war with Serbia. Initial reaction to the news of war among the European populace was overwhelmingly enthusiastic, far more so than expected. This was particularly true in Austria-Hungary, where the various nationalities came together in an unexpected show of patriotic unanimity. The war was, by general, agreement, likely to be over by Christmas.
July 29, 1914 – Serbian capital Belgrade was placed under bombardment by Austria-Hungary.
July 30, 1914 – Russia, being bound by agreement with Serbia to protect her in the event of attack, mobilizes troops. Austria-Hungary, bound by the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, that stated if either found itself at war with Russia the other would enter the fray to provide assistance, mobilizes troops.
July 31, 1914 – Germany demands that Russia immediately demobilize, while requiring from France, with an answer expected within 12 hours, a declaration of neutrality in the event of war with Russia. France was bound by the Franco-Russian Military Convention of 1892 that provided for French assistance should Russia find itself at war with either Germany or Austria-Hungary. Britain was, in effect as the result of a number of agreements, bound to aid France should she be at war with Germany.
August 1, 1914 – Germany and France mobilize troops.
August 2, 1914 – Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers with the conclusion of a secret treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire, Ottoman-German Alliance, aka: The Treaty of Alliance Between Germany and Turkey.
August 4, 1914 – Germany declares war on France.
August 4, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium. Great Britain, bound by the 1839 Treaty of London to guard the neutrality of Belgium in the event of the latter's invasion, declares a state of war with Germany.
August 4, 1914 – U.S. Declaration of Neutrality; U.S. President Woodrow Wilson addressed Congress and made public the U.S. policy of neutrality on August 19, 1914. During his address he warned U.S. citizens against taking sides in the war for fear of endangering the wider U.S. policy.
August 17, 1914 – Russia invades East Prussia.
August 23, 1914 – Japan declares war on Germany.
August 23, 1914 – September 2, 1914 – Austria-Hungary invades Russian Poland. (Galicia)
September 5, 1914 – Canadian gold standard was temporarily suspended Proclamation prohibits Canadian mint from issuing gold coins.
September 17, 1914 – Austro-German attacks western Poland.
October 15, 1914 – "Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914" enacted in the U.S. The act prohibited exclusive sales contracts, local price cutting to freeze out competitors, rebates, interlocking directorates in corporations capitalized at million or more in the same field of business, and intercorporate stock holdings. Labor unions and agricultural cooperatives were excluded from the forbidden combinations in the restraint of trade. The act restricted the use of the injunction against labor, and it legalized peaceful strikes, picketing, and boycotts. It declared that "the labor of a human being is not a commodity or article of commerce."
October 29, 1914 – Middle Eastern theatre of World War Ⅰ begins when Ottoman Empire (Turkey) enters the war on the side of the Central Powers, lasts until October 30, 1918 when the Ottomans accepted the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies.
November 1914 – Caribbean Petroleum Company (Royal Dutch Shell) discovered the first oil field in Mene Grande, Venezuela, southeast of Lake Maracaibo. Royal Dutch Shell sold the rights of the eastern oil camps that he had prospected, to Standard Oil of New Jersey, which would become Standard Oil Company of Venezuela.
December 17, 1914 – Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 passed as Public Law No. 223 by the 63rd Congress of the United States. It required those who dispensed "narcotics" to register with the Bureau of Internal Revenue (predecessor to the IRS), pay a tax, and keep records of the drugs they dispensed. The Act gave physicians the right to prescribe narcotics to patients, but the courts interpreted this to mean that physicians could prescribe narcotics to patients in the course of normal treatment, but not for the treatment of addiction. Heroin was restricted to prescription-only use in the U.S. and eventually banned by the nascent FDA altogether in 1924, except under very strict medical conditions.

1916

May 16, 1916 – Asia Minor Agreement Sykes–Picot Agreement aka: Sykes–Picot Agreement; United Kingdom, France and Russia secret agreement defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in the Middle East after conclusion of World War I.
1916–1918 – Arab Revolt begins with the goal of creating a single unified Arab state from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen and securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks.
December 27, 1916 – Former German colony Togoland separated into French and British administrative zones. Togoland formally became a League of Nations Class B mandate following ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on 20 July 1922. French Togoland became the Republic of Togo in 1960 and currently known as the Togolese Republic. British Togoland was integrated into Ghana in 1957.
December 29, 1916 – Grigori Rasputin assassinated by Vladimir Purishkevich, Reactionary Deputy of the Duma at the home of Russian nobleman Felix Yusupov. Rasputin is widely held responsible by contemporaries for the downfall of the Romanov monarchy through his tight hold over the Russian royal family. Michael Smith, the author of Six: A History of Britain's Secret Intelligence Service (2010), argued that Rasputin was assassinated by MI6 and that one of their agents, Oswald Rayner, was the man who killed him. This account is supported by Richard Cullen's book, Rasputin: The Role of Britain's Secret Service in his Torture and Murder (2010), who names Rayner, John Scale and Stephen Alley as being the agents involved in the killing.

1917

1917 – Russia Bolshevik revolution.
1917 – British enter Baghdad.

1918

1918 – British and French request Allied powers, including the United States, to began a military intervention in the Russian Civil War.

1918 – "Tanganyika Territory" established by the U.K. in the British occupied region of German East Africa. The new colonial administration established Tanganyika Railways and Port Services as the operator of the railways in the mandated territory on April 1, 1919. The Tanganyika Territory became a British League of Nations mandate between 1922 and 1946 and a British United Nations trust territory between 1946 and 1961.

1919

February 1919 – Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921) begins.
1919–1926 – War of the Rif, aka: Rif War, Second Moroccan War begins between Spain, later assisted by France, and the Moroccan Berbers of the Rif mountainous region.

World War Ⅰ (1914-1919) ends.

June 28, 1919 – Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany signed at Versailles (France) and came into force on January 10, 1920. The treaty's terms were extremely harsh, as the negotiators at Versailles later pointed out. The United States is a signatory but it was rejected by the U.S. Senate, which leads to the Knox-Porter joint resolution being passed by Congress on July 1, 1919. President Harding signed the resolution at the Frelinghuysen estate the next day. The U.S. and Germany sign a separate peace agreement, U.S. Treaty of Peace with Germany aka: Treaty of Berlin, on August 25, 1921. The U.S. also signed separate treaties with Austria on August 24, 1919 and Hungary on August 29, 1919. Russia was excluded from the treaty because it had negotiated a separate peace with Germany in 1918. China did not sign the treaty, declared the end of its war against Germany in September 1919 and signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.

  1. Treaty of Versailles Wikisourcehttp://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles
  2. The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes – Project Gutenberg eBookhttp://www.gutenberg.org/files/15776/15776-h/15776-h.htm
  3. US Peace Treaty with Germanyhttp://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/US_Peace_Treaty_with_Germany
  4. Primary Documents – U.S. Peace Treaty with Austria, 24 August 1921http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uspeacetreaty_austria.htm
  5. Primary Documents – U.S. Peace Treaty with Germany, 25 August 1921http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uspeacetreaty_germany.htm
  6. Primary Documents – U.S. Peace Treaty with Hungary, 29 August 1921http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uspeacetreaty_hungary.htm

1920

1920 – French troops occupy Syria and begin Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon aka: French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon.
March 1920 – Syrian National Congress proclaims Faisal ibn Husayn as King of Syria.
April 25, 1920 – Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration, aka: Mandatory Iraq, was created under the League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain.
June 30, 1920 – US Department of Justice files suit to dissolve the National Linseed Oil Trust, formed in 1885 to protect linseed interests in the U.S., for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act. Several co-defendants were named, including the National Lead Company, Archer-Daniels Manufacturing Company (currently Archer Daniels Midland Company who, in the mid-1990's, was involved in the Lysine price-fixing conspiracy), William O. Goodrich Company and the Sherwin-Williams Company. The suit alleged all of these companies were acting in collusion to raise prices, citing a spike in linseed oil costs between 1916 and 1918, when the price rose from $.50 per gallon to $1.80. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D00E4DD1031E433A25752C0A9619C946195D6CF [pdf]
July 1920 – French eject King of Syria, Faisal ibn Husayn.

August 10, 1920 – Post World War Ⅰ Treaty of Sèvres divides Ottoman Empire.

  1. Treaty of Peace Between The Allied & Associated Powers and Turkey Signed at Sèvres August 10, 1920 (Note: Includes Peace Treaty of Versailles 28 June, 1919.) – http://groong.usc.edu/treaties/sevres.html
  2. The Peace Treaty of Sèvreshttp://www.hri.org/docs/sevres/
  3. Text of the Peace Treaty of Sèvres 10 August, 1920 (never adopted, superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne)http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Peace_Treaty_of_S%C3%A8vres

1921

March 1921 – Britain proclaims Faisal bni Hussein as King of Iraq.
March 18, 1921 – Peace of Riga was signed ending the Polish–Soviet War. Poland and Soviet Russia divide the disputed territories of modern day Ukraine and Belarus.

1922

October 1922Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922; Protectorate treaty, giving Iraq partial independence, but leaving Britain with economic and military control over the country.

1923

September 13, 1923 – Miguel Primo de Rivera,backed by Alfonso ⅩⅢ, orchestrates coup d'état in Spain becomes Prime Minister, suspends Constitution, assumes absolute powers as a dictator, abolishes all other parties.
September 29, 1923 – France was assigned the mandate of Syria including present day Lebanon.

1925

Generation Shift: "Silent Generation" begins (1925-1945) [?]

Members of the Mature/WWⅡ Generation (born before 1946) are 67 years or older. Although most members have retired from the labor force, they comprise a wealth of valuable knowledge and experience. Many believe this generation views work as an obligation: they respect authority, take rational approaches, and produce quality work.

1926

1926–1929 – Cristero War, aka: La Cristiada begins as a mass popular uprising between Mexican rebels and the anti-Catholicism of the ruling Mexican government.

1929

October 29, 1929 – Stock Market Crash of 1929 aka: The Great Wall Street Crash of 1929; Black Tuesday.
1929 – early 1940's – The Great Depression.

1930

1930 – Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930; Re-drafted agreement based upon the 1922 treaty, taking into consideration the change in Iraq's importance after the oil finds in 1927. Treaty also assured Iraq's membership in the League of Nations was supported by Britain and independence in most areas.
1930 – President Herbert Hoover creates the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, headed by Commissioner of Narcotics Harry J. Anslinger. For the next thirty-two years, Anslinger, believing all drug users were deviant criminals, vigorously enforced the law.

1931

December 08, 1931 – WHEN THE POUND SAVED THE DOLLAR – http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/34592234

1932

October 3, 1932 – Kingdom of Iraq becomes a fully sovereign country.

1933

January 30, 1933 – Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
February 27, 1933Reichstag Fire: The Reichstag building, seat of the German government, burns after being set on fire by Nazis. This enabled Adolf Hitler to seize power under the pretext of protecting the nation from threats to its security.
March 23, 1933 – Enabling Act, aka: "Law for Removing the Distress of the People and the Reich." was passed by German Parliament, aka: the Reichstag.
March 16, 1933AMERICAN BANKS "IN THE JUNGLE". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 – 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia): p. 8. 16 March 1933.
April 10, 1933 – Canada definitively abolishes the gold standard.
October 14, 1933 – Germany quits the League of Nations.
July 3, 1934 – Bank of Canada Act receives royal assent. In March 1935, the Bank of Canada opened its doors as a privately owned institution, with shares sold to the public. Soon after the Bank opened, the Government of Canada introduced an amendment to the Bank of Canada Act to nationalize the institution. In 1938, the Bank became publicly owned with a single shareholder, the Federal Government, ie: Canadian Taxpayers, and remains that way today.

1936

July 18, 1936 – Spanish Civil war begins.
1936 – "Robinson–Patman Act of 1936" aka: "Anti-Price Discrimination Act" passed. The Act is an amendment to the Clayton Antitrust Act that prohibits anticompetitive practices by producers, specifically price discrimination. It grew out of practices in which chain stores were allowed to purchase goods at lower prices than other retailers. In general, the Act prohibits sales that discriminate in price on the sale of goods to equally-situated distributors when the effect of such sales is to reduce competition. Price means net price and includes all compensation paid. The seller may not throw in additional goods or services. Injured parties or the US government may bring an action under the Act.

1937

1937 – Marijuana Tax Act (PL 75-238), which tried to control the use of marijuana. The act made the use or sale of marijuana without a tax stamp a federal offense. Since by this time the sale of marijuana was illegal in most states, buying a federal tax stamp would alert the police in a particular state to who was selling drugs. Naturally, no marijuana dealer wanted to buy a stamp and expose his or her identity to the police. (The federal tax stamp for gambling serves the same purpose.)

1938

August 12, 1938 – German military mobilizes.

1939

World War Ⅱ (1939-1945), aka: Second World War, WWⅡ, WW2, begins.

March 15, 1939 – Germany invades Czechoslovakia.
March 28, 1939 – Spanish Civil War ends.
May 22, 1939 – "Nazi" Germany and "Fascist" Italy sign Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy aka: "Pact of Steel".
August 23, 1939 – Germany and Soviet Union sign Ribbentrop–Molotov Pact, aka: Nazi–Soviet Pact, non-aggression pact.
August 25, 1939 – Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty.
August 31, 1939 – British fleet mobilizes; Civilian evacuations begin from London.
September 1, 1939 – Germany invades Poland.
September 3, 1939 – Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany.
September 4, 1939 – British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy.
September 5, 1939 – United States proclaims its neutrality; German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland.
September 10, 1939 – Battle of the Atlantic begins, Canada declares war on Germany.
September 17, 1939 – Soviet Union invades Poland.
September 27, 1939 – Poland surrenders to Germany.
September 29, 1939 – Germany and Soviet Union divide up Poland.
November 30, 1939 – Soviet Union attacks Finland.
December 14, 1939 – Soviet Union expelled from the League of Nations.

1940

August 3-19, 1940 – Italy occupies British Somaliland in East Africa.
September 13, 1940 – Italy invades Egypt.
September 27, 1940 – Germany, Italy and Japan sign the "Tripartite Pact", aka: "Three-Power Pact", "Axis Pact", "Three-way Pact", "Tripartite Treaty"
December 9, 1940 – Britain begins a western desert offensive in North Africa against the Italians.

1941

January 5, 1941 – Australian troops capture Bardia, Libya.
January 22, 1941 – Tobruk in North Africa falls to the British and Australians.
February 11, 1941 – British forces advance into Italian Somaliland in East Africa.
February 12, 1941 – German General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli, North Africa.
February 14, 1941 – First units of German 'Afrika Korps' arrive in North Africa.
February 25, 1941 – British troops capture Mogadishu, Italian Somaliland.
March 11, 1941 – The U.S. Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act giving Roosevelt the authority to sell, transfer, or lease war goods to the government of any Allied country, thereby effectively ending American neutrality.
March 30, 1941 – German 'Afrika Korps' begins North African offensive.
April 3, 1941 – Coup d'état launched in Iraq by Pro-Axis Rashid Ali Al-Kaylani, against pro-British Emir Abdul Illah and King Faysal Ⅱ.
May 15, 1941 – British counter-attack, "Operation Brevity" begins in Egypt.
May 29, 1941 – Germany pushes Britain back to Egyptian border.
June 4, 1941 – Coup d'état launched in Iraq by Britain. Pro-British Nuri as-Said returns to power as Prime Minister of Iraq.
June 18, 1941 – German-Turkish Non-Aggression Pact signed between Nazi Germany and Turkey in Ankara by German ambassador to Turkey Franz von Papen and Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs Şükrü Saracoğlu.[1][2] It became effective on the same day and was intended to be in force for a period of ten years. The pact only lasted until October 24, 1945, when Turkey joined the United Nations.[3]
June 8, 1941 – Allies invade Syria and Lebanon and overthrow Vichy French government.
June 14, 1941 – U.S. freezes German and Italian assets.
July 25, 1941 – Britain and Russia occupy Iran.

1942

June 13, 1942 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt creates the "Office of Strategic Services (OSS)" and makes William (Wild Bill) Donovan director; during World War Ⅱ, roughly 1,500 OSS agents sneak into occupied Europe and Asia before Allied armies, organizing resistance groups. The office is dissolved after the war.

1943

December 24, 1943 – Dwight "Ike" Eisenhower is named supreme commander of Allied Expeditionary Forces.

1945

February 1945 – Yalta Conference held in Crimea Russia from February 4-11, 1945, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Harry Truman meet regarding the future progress of the war and the postwar world to determine the borders in Europe following the surrender of Germany.
March 9, 1945 – Japanese oust the French colonial government and seize control of Vietnam, install Bao Dai as leader amid rumors of a possible American invasion.
May 8, 1945 – Germany surrenders.
July-August 1945 – The Potsdam Conference is held from from July 17 to August 2, 1945. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Harry Truman met to negotiate terms for the end of World War Ⅱ. Although the Allies remained committed to fighting a joint war in the Pacific, the lack of a common enemy in Europe led to difficulties reaching consensus concerning postwar reconstruction on the European continent. Representatives from France also granted request assuring the return of all French pre-war colonies in Southeast Asia (Indochina). Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia will once again become French colonies following the removal of the Japanese. In contradiction of the Cairo Conference, the Allies unilaterally decided to divide Korea without consulting the Koreans.
August 1945 – Japanese surrender unconditionally.

World War Ⅱ (1939-1945) ends.

September 2, 1945 – Japanese sign surrender agreement in Tokyo Bay. Formally ends World War Ⅱ in the Pacific.
1945 – After Japanese surrender and occupation, Ho Chi Minh proclaims the independence of Vietnam and declares himself president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV).
1945 – Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the newly forming CIA, recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States.

1946

Generation Shift: Baby Boomers begin (1946–1964) [?]

Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) are approximately between the ages of 47 and 66. The older members have begun to retire from the labor force. This generation occupies most of the senior-level management roles. They are often stereotyped as extremely focused on work, and they possess a strong work ethic and desire recognition for their efforts. Experienced Space Exploration, First Modern "counterculture".

1946 – Syria becomes an independent republic.
1946–1949 – Greek Civil War.
1946 – 1947 – United States and the Soviet Union moved from being wartime allies to Cold War adversaries.
December 19, 1946 – First Indochina War (1946-1954) aka: Indochina War, Dirty War, Anti-French Resistance War, begins in French Indochina.

1947

1947 – McCarthy Era (late 1940s-late 1950s) begins. "McCarthyism" was a significant domestic objective of the Cold War era to hunt for Communists within the government, Hollywood and the general public. The first target was the left wing of the labor movement, which had achieved some measure of influence during the New Deal and World War Ⅱ, followed closely by the "blacklisting" of writers, actors and directors accused of being Communists and/or sympathizers.
March 12, 1947 – Truman Doctrine policy proclaims the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid and promises U.S. support for armed opposition to communists across the globe. Considered the start of the Cold War (1947-1991).
July 18, 1947 – Indian Independence Act receives royal assent from U.K. Parliament granting Hindustani, aka: British India, independence and dominion partition based upon religious demographics and geography with the creation of two independent sovereign states, the Dominion of Pakistan, currently the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh, and the Union of India, currently the Republic of India.
July 26, 1947 – President Harry S Truman signs the National Security Act, creating the Central Intelligence Agency. Five months later, he authorizes covert operations. Most early operations target Eastern Europe, supporting dissidents and disseminating propaganda. During the Korean War, the agency organizes paramilitary forces in the North.
1947 – CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.
August 14, 1947 – Dominion of Pakistan established, currently comprised of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
August 15, 1947 – Union of India established, "modern day" Republic of India.

November 29, 1947 – The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine divides Palestine into two states.

November 30, 1947 – May 14, 1948 – Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.
November 30, 1947 – July 20, 1949 – 1948 Palestine War aka: al-Nakba "The Catastrophe" (Arabic), Milkhemet Ha'atzma'ut "War of Independence" or Milkhemet Hashikhrur "War of Liberation" (Hebrew).

1948

May 15, 1948 – End of the British Mandate and British evacuate Palestine, Zionist leaders proclaim the birth the State of Israel.

May 15, 1948 – Arab–Israeli War aka: First Arab–Israeli War begins.

1949

March 1949 – CIA Syrian coup d'état; first military coup in the history of Syria.

March 1949 – France recognizes an "independent" state of Vietnam; Bao Dai installed as leader in July.
April 4, 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization, aka: NATO, intergovernmental military alliance established.
July 1949 – Laos recognized an "independent" state with ties to France.
July 20, 1949 – Arab–Israeli War ends.
October 1, 1949 – People's Republic of China was formally established, with its national capital at Beijing.
October 2, 1949 – Soviet Union recognized the People's Republic of China.
November 1949 – Cambodia recognized an "independent" state with ties to France.
November 21, 1949 – United Nations General Assembly adopts resolution to grant Libya independance no later than 1 January 1952.
1949 – U.S. Army begins 20 years of simulated germ warfare attacks against American cities, conducting at least 239 open air tests.

1950

January 1950 – The People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union recognize Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
June 25, 1950 – July 27, 1953 Korean War between North Korea and U.S. backed South Korea begins; First Cold War military action.

1951

1951 – Iran oil industry was nationalized with near-unanimous support of Iran's parliament.
April 1, 1951 – Mossad formed by Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion.
October 7, 1951 – The Libyan constitution, written by members of the Twenty One Committee which was a representative of all regions of Libya then, adapted. The constitution was based on the federal idea of government and it divided Libya into three states: Tripoli, Cyrinica and Fazzan all ruled by a central government lead by King Idris.
December 24, 1951 – The United Nations announces Libya an independant state in a close vote, with Haiti's representitative vote the only difference.

1952

1952 – "Mau Mau Uprising", aka: "Mau Mau Revolt", "Mau Mau Rebellion", "Kenya Emergency" begins as Israeli backed and trained "Mau Mau" rebels and locals engage in an anti-colonial military conflict in the British Colony of Kenya. Ends in 1960 with a British and loyalist military victory.
March 28, 1952 – Kingdom of Libya, (modern day Libya), joins the Arab League.
July 23, 1952 – Egyptian Revolution of 1952 aka: 23 July Revolution begins with a military coup d'état to overthrow King Farouk in order to achieve several objectives, establish an independent "sovereign" Republic of Egypt, end British occupation, end of the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, secure the independence of Sudan, abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan.

1953

June 17, 1953 – Worker Uprising in East Germany, first outbreak of violent discord within the communist bloc.
July 27, 1953 Korean War Armistice Agreement signed between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and the Commander of the Chinese People's volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a military armistice in Korea. Cease-Fire, Military Demarcation Line and Demilitarized Zone ends military action.
July 29, 1953 – Treaty of friendship between Libya and the United Kingdom signed.

August 19, 1953 – CIA "Operation Ajax" Iran coup d'état aka: 28 Mordad coup (Iran), Operation Boot (UK), TPAJAX Project (US). The agency's role soon becomes widely known; orchestrated overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran, against Premier Mohammed Mossadegh, by intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States, restoring Shah Reza Pahlavi to the throne.

1954

February 1954 – Syrian coup d'état.
June 18–27 1954 – Guatemalan coup d'état, CIA supported overthrow of the democratically elected government of Guatemala.
July 21, 1954 – Geneva Conference recognizes the 17th parallel as a "provisional military demarcation line" temporarily dividing Vietnam into two zones, Communist North Vietnam and pro-Western South Vietnam.
August 1, 1954 – First Indochina War (1946-1954) ends and the French leave their colonies in Indochina. The Geneva Accords split Vietnam in half, North and South, but do not end the fighting.
November 1, 1954 – Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962), aka: Algerian Revolution begins leading to the eventual collapse of the French Fourth Republic in 1958.

1955

May 14, 1955 – Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, aka: Warsaw Pact, mutual defense treaty established.
November 1, 1955 – Vietnam War (1959–1975) begins military conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

1956

March 20, 1956 – Tunisia achieves independence from France.
July 26, 1956 – Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal.
October 23, 1956 – Hungarian Revolution begins.
October 29, 1956 – Tripartite Aggression, aka: Suez Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War, Operation Kadesh, Sinai War, begins as British, French and Israeli strike against Suez in a "diplomatic" and military confrontation between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France and Israel on the other. The U.S., Soviet Union and U.N. play major roles in forcing Britain, France and Israel to withdraw.
November 4, 1956 – Hungarian Revolution ends in defeat.

1958

1958 – French Fourth Republic collapses.
1958 – Guinea achieved independence from France.
May 13, 1958 – May 1958 crisis, aka: Algiers putsch, the coup of 13 May, coup d'état marked return Charles de Gaulle to political affairs after a decade of absence.
July 14, 1958 – Iraq 14 July Revolution; coup d'état marking the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy established by King Faisal Ⅰ in 1921 under the auspices of the British.
1958 – Failed CIA Indonesian coup d'état. President Kennedy make amends for CIA involvement in the failed rebellion and invites Sukarno to Washington and provided Indonesia with billions of dollars in civilian and military aid to Indonesia.
October 4, 1958 – Fifth Republic of France established, (current republican constitution).
December 1, 1958 – French colony of Ubangi-Shari became an autonomous territory within the French Community and took the name Central African Republic.
December 11, 1958 – Republic of Dahomey (1958–1975) establishing the Kingdom of Dahomey as a self-governing colony within the French Community. It attained full independence from France on August 1, 1960 and in 1975 was renamed the "People's Republic of Benin" on November 30, 1975 and was later renamed the "Republic of Benin" on March 1, 1990.

1959

1959 – Multiple Failed CIA/Military Cuban coup d'états and assassination attempts against Fidel Castro; Bay of Pigs Invasion, The Cuban Project, Operation Northwoods, Operation Mongoose.
April 1959 – Zletin oil field, one of the largest oil fields in Libya discovered by Esso-Libya.

1960

February 1960 – United States and CIA plan a coup d'état against the government of Iraq.
1960 – Belgium grants independence to Belgian Congo renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo.
April 27, 1960 – French Togoland (1916–1960) gains independence from France, renamed Togolese Republic.
May 27, 1960 – Group of Turkish army officers stage a coup d'état against the democratically elected government of the Democrat Party and return power to civilians 17 months later in October 1961.
June 20, 1960 – French Sudan becomes independent as Sudanese Republic and was joined with the Republic of Senegal forming the Mali federation.
July 11, 1960 Province of Katanga in the southeast declares independence as the State of Katanga with the support of Belgian business interests Belgian troops.
August 1, 1960 – Republic of Dahomey (1958–1975) gains full independence from France. In 1975 was renamed the "People's Republic of Benin" on November 30, 1975 and was renamed the "Republic of Benin" on March 1, 1990.
August 13, 1960 – Central African Republic gained its independence from France.
August 20, 1960 – Senegal seceded from Mali federation.
September 22, 1960 – Sudanese Republic obtains full independence from France and severed ties with the French Community changes name to the Republic of Mali. Seeking to promote African unity, Mali joined in a largely symbolic union with Guinea and Ghana, and in 1963 it joined the newborn Organization of African Unity.

1961

1918 – "Tanganyika Territory" established by the U.K. in the British occupied region of German East Africa. The new colonial administration established Tanganyika Railways and Port Services as the operator of the railways in the mandated territory on April 1, 1919. The Tanganyika Territory became a British League of Nations mandate between 1922 and 1946 and a British United Nations trust territory between 1946 and 1961.
December 9, 1961 – Tanganyika Territory gained its independence from the United Kingdom as Tanganyika, a Commonwealth realm. It became a republic a year later but stayed in the British Commonwealth of Nations and now forms part of the modern day Tanzania.

January 17, 1961 – Assasination of Patrice Lumumba, the first legally elected prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

April 17, 1961 – A brigade of 1,400 CIA-trained Cuban exiles lands at the Bay of Pigs and is quickly defeated. Seven months later, President John F. Kennedy authorizes Operation Mongoose, a series of sabotage attacks on Cuba. The agency also develops several schemes to assassinate Castro, including two involving the Mafia.
May 30, 1961 – CIA backed coup d'état to overthrow Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic.
July 5, 1962 – Algeria declares independence from France.
October 20, 1962 Sino-Indian War aka: Indo-Chinese War, Sino-Indian Border Conflict, begins.

1963

March 1963 – Syrian coup d'état aka: 8 March Revolution, 1963 March Revolution.
October 7, 1963 – The Libyan constitution updated to declaring Libya as one nation and the name was changed from The United Kingdom of Libya to The Kingdom of Libya.

November 1, 1963 – CIA backed coup d'état to overthrow government of South Vietnam.

November 11, 1963 – Iraqi coup d'état; First Ba'ath regime collapses in Iraq.
December 10, 1963 – Zanzibar granted independence from the U.K.
December 12, 1963 – Kenya Colony gains independence from the U.K.

1964

Generation Shift: Generation X begins (1965-1979) [?]

Generation X (born between 1966 and 1980) is approximately between the ages of 32 and 46. The oldest members could be entering senior-level management roles while the younger members entering/approaching mid-career and senior-level supervisory roles.8 Many members of Generation X embrace diversity [9] and entrepreneurship [10]. Experienced: Vietnam War/Cold War, Rise of Mass Media/end of the Cold War, Rise of the Information Age/Internet/War on Terror/Iraq War/Rising Gas and Food Prices; 1965-1984 "Hip-Hop" generation.

January 12, 1964 – Zanzibar Revolution begins as local African revolutionaries, backed by Israel and the Mossad, overthrow the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government. On January 23, 1964 the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba, a state consisting of the islands of the Zanzibar Archipelago was formed. It existed until April 26, 1964 when it merged with Tanganyika to create the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
1964 – Congolese supported by communist China, rebelled against the government.
March 1964 – Brazilian coup d'état overthrowing the democratically-elected government of Brazil, headed by President João Goulart. Part of CIA Operation Brother Sam.
April 26, 1964 – United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar created by the merger of Tanganyika and the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba, was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania, aka: Tanzania later that year. "Tanzania" derives from the names of the two states, Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
December 12, 1964 – Former colony of Britain Kenya declared the Republic of Kenya.

1965

November 25, 1965 – With the help of political and military support of Western countries, including the U.S and the CIA, Joseph Mobutu seizes power of Congo.

1966

February 1966 – Syrian coup d'état.
February 1966 – CIA backed coup d'état to overthrow first democratically elected president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah who helped Ghana gain its independence from British colonial rule.

1967

June 5, 1967 – Six-Day War, aka: June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Third Arab-Israeli War fought between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, known at the time as the United Arab Republic, begins as Israel launches pre-emptive attacks on Egypt, destroying nearly 400 Egypt-based military aircraft, conducts raids into the Jordanian-controlled West Bank and initiates aerial clashes over Syrian territory.
June 6, 1967 – Demonstrations erupt in major cities in Libya following the beginning of the Arab Israeli war of June 5, 1967. Many of the demonstrators asked the government to let them go to the front and fight while Egyptian leader Jamal Abdulnasir accuses King Idris's government of allowing American and British bases in Libya to be used against Egypt.
June 8, 1967 – United States Navy electronic intelligence vessel, USS Liberty, attacked by Israeli jets and torpedo boats. http://www.chicagotribune.com/services/newspaper/eedition/chi-liberty_tuesoct02,0,3794785,full.story
June 10, 1967 – Six-Day War ends. Israel takes control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

1968

October 1968

1969

September 1, 1969 – Bloodless coup, led by Muammar al-Qaddafi, against King Idris Ⅰ of Libya. Idris was deposed and Qaddafi was named chairman of Libya's new governing body, the Revolutionary Command Council.

1970

1970 – Libya removes U.S. and British military bases and expelles Italian and Jewish Libyans.

July 24. 1970 – National Security Study Memorandum 97 (NSSM 97) – issued in President Nixon's name by National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger regarding Chile.

NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
WASHINGTON D.C 20506
July 24. 1970

National Security Study Memorandum 97
The Secretary of State
The Secretary of Defense
The Director of Central Intelligence
The Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

SUBJECT, Chile

The President has asked for an urgent review of U.S. policy and strategy in the event of an Allende victory in the Chilean Presidential elections.

The study should cover the following points:

  1. What policies and goals is an Allende administration likely to espouse? What probable alternative courses are developments in Chile likely to take under an Allende government?
  2. What is the nature and degree of threat to U.S. interests of these alternatives, both in inunediate terms and in terms of impact on our long-range goals and position?
  3. What options are open to the U. S. to meet these problems?

The paper should be prepared by an ad hoc group comprising representatives of the addresses and the NSC staff and should be chaired by the representative of the Department of State. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, knowledge of the paper and participation in its preparation should be kept on a strict need-to-know basis. Additional participation as m ay be required should be specifically approved by the chairman of the ad hoc group under these guidelines.

The paper should be submitted to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs no later than August 18, 1970.

Henry A. Kissinger

September 15, 1970 – President Richard M. Nixon and Henry Kissinger instruct CIA Director Richard Helms to spend up to $10 million "to prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him." The operation was initialy named "Track Ⅱ", and later conducted under the codename "Project FUBELT", that was initiated to prevent the rise to power before his confirmation, and promote a military coup in Chile. That coup would be realized on September 11, 1973.

1971

March 12, 1971 – Second Turkish coup d'état carried out in the Republic of Turkey in 11 years. The military delivered the "Coup by Memorandum", in lieu of sending out tanks, as it had done previously in 1960, it came amid worsening domestic strife, but ultimately did little to halt this phenomenon.
July 15, 1971 – President Nixon announced that his Assistant for National Security Affairs, Dr. Henry Kissinger, had made a secret trip to Beijing to initiate direct contact with the Chinese leadership and that he, the President, had been invited to visit China.

1972

January 20, 1972 – Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia reach agreement with Western oil companies to raise the posted price of crude to offset the loss in value of oil concessions attributable to the decline in value of the U.S. dollar.

February 27, 1972 – SINO-US JOINT COMMUNIQUE: President Richard Nixon of the United States of America visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People's Republic of China from February 21 to February 28, 1972. Accompanying the President were Mrs. Nixon, U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers, Assistant to the President Dr. Henry Kissinger, and other American officials.

President Nixon met with Chairman Mao Tse-tung of the Communist Party of China on February 21. The two leaders had a serious and frank exchange of views on Sino-U.S. relations and world affairs.

During the visit, extensive, earnest and frank discussions were held between President Nixon and Premier Chou En-lai on the normalization of relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China, as well as on other matters of interest to both sides. In addition, Secretary of State William Rogers and Foreign Minister Chi Peng-fei held talks in the same spirit.

At the conclusion of his trip, the U.S. and Chinese Governments issued the "Shanghai Communiqué", a statement of their foreign policy views. (For the complete text of the Shanghai Communiqué, see the Department of State Bulletin, March 20, 1972.)

In the Communiqué, both nations pledged to work toward the full normalization of diplomatic relations. The United States acknowledged the Chinese position that all Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait maintain that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China. The statement enabled the United States and China to temporarily set aside the "crucial question obstructing the normalization of relations"–Taiwan–and to open trade and other contacts.

March 11,1972 – OPEC threatens "appropriate sanctions" against companies that "fail to comply with any action taken by a Member Country in accordance with [OPEC] decisions."
1972 – 1973 – Iraq and Libya begin nationalizing and taking control of foreign-owned oil fields.

October 1972 – President Nixon and Kissinger's "Peace is at hand" statement assures President Nixon went on to defeat Democratic Presidential Nominee George McGovern in an historic landslide victory on November 7 1972.

October 26, 1972 – Commander Mathieu Kérékou and the Army overthrow the government of Republic of Dahomey in a successful coup d'état forming the People's Republic of Benin (1972–1990).
October 27, 1972 – OPEC approves plan providing for 25 percent government ownership of all Western oil interests operating within Kuwait, Qatar, Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia beginning on January 1, 1973, and rising to 51 percent by January 1, 1983. (Iraq declines to agree.) Agreements signed on December 21.

1973

January 1973 "1973–1974 Stock Market Crash" begins one of the worst stock market downturns in modern history, as a severe bear market, that lasted until December 1974, affecting all of the major stock markets in the world. The crash came after the collapse of the Bretton Woods system over the previous two years, with the associated 'Nixon Shock' and United States unilaterally terminated the convertibility of the dollar to gold. The U.S. Dollar devaluation under the Smithsonian Agreement was a major event in the 1970s recession that was compounded by the outbreak of the "1973 Oil Crisis" in October.

In the US, the unemployment skyrocketed to 9% by mid–1975 — the highest rate since the Great Depression. The stock market as measured by the Dow Jones index decreased 25% between 1969 and 1971 and then lost another 20% by mid-1975. The Hong Kong Hang Seng Index also fell from 1,800 in early 1973 to close to 300. In the United Kingdom, the "Secondary Banking Crisis of 1973–75" began as a dramatic crash in property prices in Great Britain caused dozens of small, "secondary", lending banks to be threatened with bankruptcy forcing the Bank of England to bail out a number of lenders, inflation continued to rise up to 25% in 1975.

It was compounded by the outbreak of the 1973 oil crisis in October of that year. It was a major event in the 1970s recession.

January 23, 1973 – Shah of Iran announces that the 1954 operating agreement between a consortium of oil companies and Iran will not be renewed when it expires in 1979. The consortium was formed in 1954 as a means to settle a dispute between a new ministry in Iran and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). The consortium included Standard Oil of New Jersey, Standard Oil of California, SOCONY-Vacuum, the Texas Company, Gulf, Royal Dutch-Shell, the Compagnie Francaise de Petroles, and the AIOC.
February 21, 1973: Israeli Air Force fighters shoot down a Libyan civilian airplane, 106 Libyans died.
May 1973 – The United States and China establish the United States Liaison Office (USLO) in Beijing and a counterpart Chinese office in Washington, DC.
1973 – CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed in 1973.
1973 – 1975 – CIA and US Military backed Chilean "Project Camelot" coup d'état to overthrow democratically elected President Salvador Allende and install Augusto Pinochet. Considered a watershed event of the Cold War and the history of Chile.

May 14, 1973 – Nixon's October Surprise; Former Vietnam War national security adviser, Walt W. Rostow, typed a three-page "memorandum for the record" summarizing a secret file that his former boss, President Lyndon Johnson, had amassed on what may have been Richard Nixon's dirtiest tricks headed by Kissinger, the sabotaging of Vietnam peace talks to win the 1968 election.

June 27, 1973 – Coup d'état begins in Uruguay, marks beginning of civic-military dictatorship that lasts until 1985.
June 29, 1973 – Failed coup d'état attempt in Chile, ("El Tanquetazo", aka: "El Tancazo"), led by Army Lieutenant Colonel Roberto Souper against the government of Socialist president Salvador Allende.
August 1973 – Chilean Senate declares the Salvador Allende government to be "unlawful" in large part due to its practice of unconstitutional expropriation of private property.

September 11, 1973 – General Augusto Pinochet and the Chilean military stage a coup d'état that deposes Chile's socialist President Salvador Allende who, in early September, floated the idea of resolving the ongoing constitutional crisis in Chile with a plebiscite scheduled for September 11, 1973. Allende gave his farewell speech, with gunfire and explosions in the background, to Chileans on live radio just prior to the capture of the Presidential Palace. Shortly afterwards, the coup plotters announced that Allende committed suicide but later evidence would prove he was assassinated. The CIA, which had organized a failed coup in 1970, encouraged Pinochet but denies direct involvement to this day.

  • Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup By Peter Kornbluh National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 8 – Washington, D.C. - September 11, 1998 marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet. The violent overthrow of the democratically-elected Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende changed the course of the country that Chilean poet Pablo Neruda described as "a long petal of sea, wine and snow"; because of CIA covert intervention in Chile, and the repressive character of General Pinochet's rule, the coup became the most notorious military takeover in the annals of Latin American history.
    Revelations that President Richard Nixon had ordered the CIA to "make the economy scream" in Chile to "prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him," prompted a major scandal in the mid-1970s, and a major investigation by the U.S. Senate. Since the coup, however, few U.S. documents relating to Chile have been actually declassified- -until recently. Through Freedom of Information Act requests, and other avenues of declassification, the National Security Archive has been able to compile a collection of declassified records that shed light on events in Chile between 1970 and 1976. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/nsaebb8i.htm
October 1973 – 1973 oil crisis begins.

October 6, 1973 – Fourth Arab-Israeli War, aka: "October War", "Yom Kippur War", "Ramadan War", begins.

  • The October War and U.S. Policy William Burr, National Security Archive, October 7, 2003 – Kissinger Gave Green Light for Israeli Offensive Violating 1973 Cease-Fire; U.S.-Israeli Decisions Touched Off Crisis Leading to 1973 U.S. Nuclear Alert. New Documents Correct Previous Accounts in Kissinger Books. Washington, D.C., 7 October 2003 – During the 1973 October War, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger secretly gave Israeli authorities a green light to breach a cease-fire agreement arranged with the Soviet Union, according to new documents published by the National Security Archive today on the war's 30th anniversary. Declassified documents detail Kissinger's efforts to buy time for Israeli military advances despite the impending cease-fire deadline. This episode is not discussed in Kissinger's new book, Crisis, and was downplayed in his memoirs.
November 23, 1973 – Arab summit conference adopts open and secret resolutions on the use of the oil weapon. Embargo extended to Portugal, Rhodesia, and South Africa.
November 27, 1973 – U.S. President Richard Nixon signs Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act (EPAA) authorizing petroleum price, production, allocation and marketing controls.
December 10, 1973 – Henry Kissinger accepts the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord.

1974

August 9, 1974 – U.S. President Nixon resigns Gerald Ford assumes office of the presidency.

September 8, 1974 – U.S President Ford issues "Proclamation 4311" pardoning Richard Nixon of any and all crimes committed between January 20, 1969 and August 9, 1974, including Watergate.

It is believed that a trial of Richard Nixon, if it became necessary, could not fairly begin until a year or more has elapsed. In the meantime, the tranquility to which this nation has been restored by the events of recent weeks could be irreparably lost by the prospects of bringing to trial a former President of the United States. The prospects of such trial will cause prolonged and divisive debate over the propriety of exposing to further punishment and degradation a man who has already paid the unprecedented penalty of relinquishing the highest elective office of the United States.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States, pursuant to the pardon power conferred upon me by Article Ⅱ, Section 2, of the Constitution, have granted and by these presents do grant a full, free, and absolute pardon unto Richard Nixon for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from January 20, 1969 through August 9, 1974.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighth day of September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-four, and of the Indepdendence of the United States the one hundred and ninety-ninth.

September 27, 1974 – President Gerald Ford appoints Donald Rumsfeld his Chief of Staff.
December 19, 1974 – Nelson Rockefeller is sworn in as Vice President of the united States.

1975

November 1, 1975 – Vietnam War (1959–1975) ends.
November 30, 1975 – People's Republic of Benin established in "modern day" Republic of Benin after the successful coup d'état by Commander Mathieu Kérékou and the Army that overthrew the Republic of Dahomey on October 26, 1972 .
December 1975 – U.S. President Ford visits China to reaffirm U.S. interest in normalizing relations with Beijing.

1975 – Church Commission Report into the illegal activities revealed by the Watergate affair also uncovers that covert United States involvement in Chile in the decade between 1963 and 1973 was extensive and continuous.

The Church Committee is the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (DID) in 1975. A precursor to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, the committee investigated intelligence gathering for illegality by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) after certain activities had been revealed by the Watergate affair.

Background

By the early years of the 1970s, the unpopularity of the Vietnam War and the unfolding Watergate scandal brought the era of minimal oversight to an abrupt halt [according to whom?]. The US Congress was determined to rein in the Nixon administration and to ascertain the extent to which the nation's intelligence agencies had been involved in questionable, if not outright illegal, activities.

A series of troubling revelations started to appear in the press concerning intelligence activities. First came the revelations of Christopher Pyle in January 1970 of the U.S. Army's spying on the civilian population[1][2] and Sam Ervin's Senate investigations that resulted.[3] The dam broke on 22 December 1974, when The New York Times published a lengthy article by Seymour Hersh detailing operations engaged in by the Central Intelligence Agency over the years that had been dubbed the "family jewels". Covert action programs involving assassination attempts against foreign leaders and covert attempts to subvert foreign governments were reported for the first time. In addition, the article discussed efforts by intelligence agencies to collect information on the political activities of US citizens.[4]

These revelations convinced many Senators and Representatives that the Congress itself had been too lax, trusting, and naive in carrying out its oversight responsibilities.

Overview

In 1975 and 1976, the Church Committee published fourteen reports on the formation of U.S. intelligence agencies, their operations, and the alleged abuses of law and of power that they had committed, together with recommendations for reform, some of which were put in place.

Among the matters investigated were attempts to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of the Congo, Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, the Diem brothers of Vietnam, Gen. René Schneider of Chile and President John F. Kennedy's plan to use the Mafia to kill Fidel Castro of Cuba.

Under recommendations and pressure by this committee, President Gerald Ford issued Executive Order 11905 (ultimately replaced in 1981 by President Reagan's Executive Order 12333) to ban U.S. sanctioned assassinations of foreign leaders.

Together, the Church Committee's reports have been said to constitute the most extensive review of intelligence activities ever made available to the public. Much of the contents were classified, but more than 50,000 pages have since been declassified under the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.

Continue researching: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_Commission

  • The CIA's Family Jewels Agency Violated Charter for 25 Years, Wiretapped Journalists and Dissidents CIA Announces Declassification of 1970s "Skeletons" File, Archive Posts Justice Department Summary from 1975, With White House Memcons on Damage Control National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 222 Edited by Thomas Blanton Posted – June 21, 2007 Updated – June 26, 2007, 1 p.m.http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB222/ (Update – Full Report Now Available and Full Text Searchable)
July 5-6, 1975 – U.S. President Gerald Ford meets Indonesian dictator Suharto at Camp David.
October 2, 1975 – Emperor Hirohito of Japan visits President Gerald Ford at the White House.

November 1975 – President Gerald Ford:

  • appoints Donald H. Rumsfeld his Secretary of Defense;
  • appoints Dick Cheney his Chief of Staff.
November 2, 1975 – President Gerald Ford fires CIA Director William Colby and replaces him with George H.W. Bush.
December 2, 1975 – President Gerald Ford flies to China and meets with Chairman Mao.
December 5-6, 1975 – U.S. President Gerald Ford flies to Indonesia with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger reassure dictator Suharto that his impending invasion of East Timor will not be opposed by the United States.
December 1975 – President Gerald Ford flies to the Philippines and meets with Ferdinand Marcos.

1977

1977 – President Carter reaffirms the interest expressed in the Shanghai Communiqué shortly after taking office.

1978

April 27 1978 – Conflict in Afghanistan begins.
December 15, 1978 – The United States and China announce that the two governments will establish diplomatic relations on January 1, 1979.

1979

January 1, 1979 – JOINT COMMUNIQUE ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (note: The Communique was released on December 15, 1978, in Washington and Peking.)

The United States of America and the People's Republic of China have agreed to recognize each other and to establish diplomatic relations as of January 1, 1979.

The United States of America recognizes the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China. Within this context, the people of the United States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan.

The United States of America and the People's Republic of China reaffirm the principles agreed on by the two sides in the Shanghai Communique and emphasize once again that:

  • –Both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict.
  • –Neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region or in any other region of the world and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony.
  • –Neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other states.
  • –The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China.
  • –Both believe that normalization of Sino-American relations is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also contributes to the cause of peace in Asia and the world.

The United States of America and the People's Republic of China will exchange Ambassadors and establish Embassies on March 1, 1979.

January 16, 1979 – Islamic Revolution of 1979 begins as the Shah flees Iran in exile.
April 1, 1979 – Iran becomes an Islamic Republic.

1979-1989 – Civil War in Afghanistan aka: Soviet War in Afghanistan, Charlie Wilson's War. Part of the Cold War, it was fought between Soviet-led Afghan forces against multi-national insurgent groups called the mujahideens. The insurgents received military training in neighboring Pakistan and China plus billions of dollars from the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and other countries. The early foundations of al-Qaida were built in part on relationships and weaponry that came from the billions of dollars in U.S. support for the Afghan mujahadin during the war to expel Soviet forces from Afghanistan.

  • Operation Cyclone: CIA provided assistance Afghan mujahideen militants and fundamentalist insurgents through the Pakistani secret services, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). One of the CIA's longest and most expensive covert operations. Saudi Arabia, Britain's MI6 and SAS, Egypt, Iran, and the People's Republic of China ran similar programs.

1980

Generation Shift: Generation Y, aka: Millennials, begins (1980-2000) [?]

Generation Y or the Millennials (born between 1981 and 2000) are approximately between the ages of 12 and 31. The older members are in the labor force while the younger members are still completing their formal education. This generation is known for being optimistic and goal-oriented: they are known for enjoying collaboration and multitasking, are comfortable embracing emerging technologies, and appreciate meaningful work.

January 23, 1980 – Carter Doctrine, written by Zbigniew Brzezinski, proclaimed the U.S. would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf region as a direct response to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
early 1980's – 1991 – Reagan Doctrine, strategic centerpiece of United States foreign policy that was orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War.
September 1980 – Iran–Iraq War, aka: First Persian Gulf War, between Iran and Iraq begins and lasts until August 1988.
September 11, 1980 – CIA along with 3,000 American troops of the RDF started the "Anvil Express" maneuver on Turkish soil initiating the third coup d'état in the history of Turkey.
September 12, 1980 – Turkish coup d'état begins with the support and assistance of the US Military and the CIA due to the ongoing U.S. vs Soviet Union proxy wars of the 1970's. Turkish military adopts "strategy of tension" allowing conflicts to escalate to create a pretext for a decisive intervention.

October 1980 – 1980 Carter vs. Reagan October Surprise

1980-81 – CIA and the U.S. supports Solidarity movement in Poland and wages a public relations campaign to deter "an imminent move by large Soviet military forces into Poland."
1980's Reagan administration provided covert aid to the anti-communist UNITA rebels during the Angolan Civil War between the Cuban-backed MPLA government in Angola and South African-backed UNITA forces.
1980 – 1995 Cambodia – The Reagan Administration sought to apply the Reagan Doctrine by offering aid to anti-Soviet resistance movements abroad to Cambodia, which was under occupation and control of a Vietnamese installed communist government.

1981

1981 – Polish government launches crackdown on Solidarity. Some believe that the CIA was caught off guard, while others suggest that American policy-makers viewed internal crackdown as preferable to an "inevitable Soviet intervention."
1981 – President Ronald Reagan appoints Bill Casey as Director of Central Intelligence. Casey re-energizes covert operations, supporting paramilitary efforts in Angola, Cambodia and El Salvador. His biggest operation: funding and training the Nicaraguan contras.
1981-1990 – CIA attempts to overthrow the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
October 7, 1981 – National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL) was founded by Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf with the support of the government of Saudi Arabia and the U.S. CIA. Dr. Mohammed Magariaf was the former Libyan ambassador to India until 1980, when he announced his defection in Morocco and is currently Libya's de facto Head of State as President of the General National Congress.

1982

August 17, 1982 – SINO-US JOINT COMMUNIQUE: Establishment of Diplomatic Relations; The United States of America recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, relations between the United States and China normalized.
1982 – 1984 – Boland Amendment containing three U.S. legislative amendments aimed at limiting U.S. government assistance to the Contras in Nicaragua. Beyond restricting overt U.S. support of the Contras, the most significant effect of the Boland Amendment was the Iran-Contra Affair, during which the Reagan Administration illegally circumvented the Amendment in order to continue supplying arms to the Contras, behind the back of Congress.
1982 – 1992 – Lebanon hostage crisis begins with the systematic kidnapping of 96 foreign hostages of 21 national origins, primarily American and western Europeans, between 1982 and 1992.

1984

May 8, 1984 – Dr. Mohammed Magariaf directs commandos from the National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL), in a failed coup d'état attempt to overthrow the Gadhafi regime in Libya.
July 3, 1985 – Israel gets involved to help "free" Americans captured in Lebanon as U.S. National Security Adviser, Robert McFarlane meets with Israeli David Kimche. The arms-for-hostages deal is first outlined, as is the prospect of improving the U.S.-Iran relationship with the profits going towards sponsoring CIA backed Contra guerillas in Nicaragua.

1986

March 23 1986 – Action in the Gulf of Sidra, aka: Operation Prairie Fire, begins as the U.S. deploys aircraft carrier groups in the disputed Gulf of Sidra. U.S. aircraft from the three carriers then crossed the "Line of Death" to instigate hostilities with Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
April 15, 1986 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan orders military action against Libya, codenamed Operation El Dorado Canyon. The Reagan administration's handling of the raid was hurried and followed up by embarrassing revelations several months later, by Bob Woodward, that revealed that the administration had devised a policy to plant false information in the press, the American press included, to convince Qaddafi that an attack on Libya was imminent, and that he would be overthrown.

November 1986 – Iran–Contra affair, aka: Irangate, Contragate or the Iran-Contra scandal; U.S. political scandal during the Reagan administration where senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran which the subject of an arms embargo. U.S. officials hoped that the arms sales would secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras. Under the Boland Amendment, further funding of the Contras by the government had been prohibited by Congress.

1986 – United States plays a significant role in pressuring Philippines dictator Ferdinand Marcos to step down and in the peaceful transition to democracy in the Philippines, notwithstanding decades of past American support for his regime.

1988

August 1988 – Iran–Iraq War, aka: First Persian Gulf War, between Iran and Iraq ends.

1989

November 17, 1989 – Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia begins.

1990

March 1, 1990 – People's Republic of Benin renamed Republic of Benin established, ending the People's Republic of Benin (1972–1990).

August 6, 1990 – United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 661 acting under Chapter Ⅶ of the Charter of the United Nations, imposing comprehensive sanctions on Iraq.

1991

1991 Somali Civil War begins.

1992

1992-1996 CIA initiates unsuccessful coup d'état strategy, "DBACHILLES", to indirectly support bomb and sabotage campaigns in Iraq with the intentions of destabilizing Iraq and deposing Saddam Hussein.

December 3, 1992 – UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of UNOSOM I, the first coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.

1995

1995 – CIA pulls the plug on efforts to mobilize Kurdish guerrillas in northern Iraq, convinced that Saddam Hussein is on to the operation.

1996

October 14, 1996 – Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) plead guilty, under the "1890 Sherman Act", to its involvement in the global price-fixing conspiracy for the amino acid "Lysine" between 1992 and 1995. In the plea agreement, ADM and three Asian lysine manufacturers admitted to three felonies: colluding on lysine prices, allocating the volume of lysine to be sold by each manufacturer and participating in meetings to monitor compliance of "cartel" members. When added to animal feed, the lysine amino acid helps animals, especially chickens, fatten up for slaughter more quickly, providing a boost to profits in an industry known for razor-thin profit margins. Unlike any other price-fixing conspiracy before or since, ADM's involvement in a global cartel was meticulously recorded by a mole inside the organization while the conspiracy was underway, offering an unprecedented level of insight into the nuts and bolts of an international white-collar crime syndicate. ADM was at the center of several international price-fixing conspiracies.

  • ADM Execs Nailed on Price-Fixing, May Do Time Government Gets Watershed Convictions, But Company Still Dominates Lysine Market by Angela Wissman – Illinois Legal Times October, 1998http://pages.uoregon.edu/bruceb/lysine_l.htm
  • THE FIX WAS IN AT ADM By John Greenwald Monday, Oct. 28, 1996http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985379,00.html
  • Lysine: A Case Study in International Price-Fixing by John M. Connor, 1998http://nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/bibarticles/connor_lysine.pdf [pdf]
  • Price-fixer to the world John K. Wilson – Archer Daniels Midland (NYSE: ADM) used to be known as, "The supermarket to the world," thanks to its ads on political talk shows. But after an FBI investigation in the 1990s, ADM pleaded guilty to fixing international prices on citric acid and lysine, paid a $100 million fine, and saw three of its top executives convicted and sent to prison.
    The scandal devastated a politically influential company that had long been viewed as a success story. Founded a century ago to make linseed oil as Archer Daniels Linseed (it acquired Midland Linseed in 1923 to become ADM), the company began to lag in the 1960s. ADM offered the Andreas brothers, Lowell and Dwayne, 6 percent of the company to come in and revitalize it. The company's financial picture quickly turned around, and the Andreas family and its trusted friends — including president James Randall — have dominated ADM's executive ranks and its board of directors since then.
    Much of ADM's profitability came from its former chairman and CEO, Dwayne Andreas, who was legendary for his political contacts. Contacts that proved crucial as ADM became the world's largest recipient of corporate welfare. With the help of a high cane-sugar tariff and support that costs the government $1.5 billion a year and consumers $3 billion annually (to protect the $3 billion high-fructose corn syrup market that ADM dominates), and the heavily subsidized and protected ethanol business (another ADM specialty), Dwayne's empire grew. http://www.bankrate.com/brm/news/investing/20001221c.asp?prodtype=grn
  • ADM's lawsuit could hurt company Lubbock Avalanche-Journal Editorial Staff, 1996-09-19 – Experts say suing FBI mole in price-fixing probe could be legal blunder – http://lubbockonline.com/news/122996/adms.htm
  • Tale of the Tapes by Susan Webber, September 25, 2000 – Kurt Eichenwald provides a masterful account of the ADM price-fixing scandal — with the help of a government informant. http://www.auroraadvisors.com/articles/2000-09_dailydeal.html
  • ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND: PRICE-FIXER TO THE WORLD (Fourth Edition) by John M. Connor, December 2000http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/28664/1/sp00-11.pdf [pdf]
  • Sweetener settlement for ADM 18-Jun-2004 – Ingredients supplier Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) said on Thursday that it had reached a $400 million (€333m) settlement in an anti-trust case that claimed the US firm conspired to fix the price of the food sweetener high fructose corn syrup used expansively in food and soft drink products. http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Business/Sweetener-settlement-for-ADM

December 3, 1996 – Former Top ADM Executives, Japanese Executive, Indicted in Lysine Price Fixing. Conspiracy Korean Company Also Charged: Agrees to Plead Guilty, Pay Fine and Cooperate with the Government's Investigation U.S. Department Of Justice – WASHINGTON — A Chicago federal grand jury indicted three former top Archer Daniels Midland Co. executives and one Japanese executive today for conspiring to fix prices and allocate sales in the lysine market worldwide, the Department of Justice announced. A Korean company also agreed to plead guilty to separate charges and pay a $1.25 million fine for its role in the conspiracy.

This is the third round of charges brought as a result of the Department's investigation into the food and feed additives industry. In October, ADM pleaded guilty and was sentenced to pay a $100 million criminal fine–the largest criminal antitrust fine ever–for its role in two international conspiracies to fix prices and allocate sales in the lysine and citric acid markets worldwide. http://www.justice.gov/atr/public/press_releases/1996/1030.htm

1997

October 10, 1997Former ADM Executive Pleads Guilty to Fraud U.S. Department Of Justice – Washington, D.C. – The Department Of Justice announced that Mark E. Whitacre, the former president of the BioProducts Division of the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), today entered pleas of guilty to charges of wire fraud, money laundering, conspiracy to defraud the IRS, filing false income tax return, and interstate transportation of stolen property. http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/1997/October97/425crm.html
October 29, 1997 – Chinese President Jiang Zemin's State Visit to the United States: At the invitation of President William J. Clinton of the United States of America, President Jiang Zemin of the People's Republic of China is paying a state visit to the United States from October 26 to November 3, 1997. This is the first state visit by the President of China to the United States in twelve years. President Jiang Zemin held formal talks with President Clinton in Washington D.C. and also met with Vice President Al Gore, Congressional leaders and other American leaders. Talks also were held between Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Qian Qichen and Secretary of State Madeleine Albright.

1998

June 27, 1998 – US State Visit to China: President Clinton meets with President Jiang to engage in extensive and in-depth exchange of views on China-U. S. relations and the major international and regional issues.

October 31, 1998 – Iraq Liberation Act of 1998; United States Congressional statement of policy calling for regime change in Iraq signed into law by President Bill Clinton and cited in October 2002 to argue for the authorization of military force against the Iraqi government.

August 7, 1998 – U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, bombed.
August 1998 – CIA begins urgent campaign against al-Qaeda in Afghanistan after African embassy bombings, rebuild contacts with the Northern Alliance and hire armed tribesmen to gather intelligence and try to capture Osama bin Laden.

August 20, 1998 – U.S. launch cruise missiles at a targets in Afghanistan and destroy pharmaceutical manufacturing facility in Khartoum, Sudan

1999

April 8, 1999 – Premier Zhu Rongji of the People's Republic of China visits President Clinton and pledge to work together to build toward a constructive and a strategic partnership to build world peace and stability and to enhance the security and prosperity of both nations.

2000

Generation Shift: Generation Z, aka: New Silent Generation, begins (2000/2001-Present)

Rise of the Information Age / Internet / dot com bubble / Digital Globalization.

2001

2001 – "War on Terror" begins. For the first time in United States history the CIA spearheads it's first large-scale military operation and coup d'etat in Afghanistan. CIA Special Activities Division units were the first U.S. forces to enter Afghanistan soon followed by U.S. Army Special Forces combined with Northern Alliance and overthrow the Taliban with minimal loss of U.S. lives and no conventional ground troops.
October 7, 2001 – United States, United Kingdom, Australia, France and the Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance) launch Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.
October 19, 2001 – Bush-Jiang Joint APEC Press Conference – In the first meeting between the two heads of state, Chinese President Jiang Zemin and US President Bush had talks and in-depth exchange of views on important issues concerning Sino-US relations, antiterrorism, and safeguarding world peace and stability.
November 21, 2001 – U.S. President Bush asks Defense Secretary Rumsfeld about contingencies for war with Iraq, and directs him to initiate planning.

2002

January 29, 2002 – U.S. President Bush targets Iraq in his "axis of evil" State of the Union speech.

April 11, 2002 – Failed CIA supported Venezuelan coup d'état attempt.

  • American navy 'helped Venezuelan coup'April 29, 2002 – The United States had been considering a coup to overthrow the elected Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez, since last June, a former US intelligence officer claimed yesterday.It is also alleged that the US navy aided the abortive coup which took place in Venezuela on April 11 with intelligence from its vessels in the Caribbean. Evidence is also emerging of US financial backing for key participants in the coup. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/29/venezuela.duncancampbell
  • Venezuela coup linked to Bush teamApril 21, 2002 – The failed coup in Venezuela was closely tied to senior officials in the US government, The Observer has established. They have long histories in the 'dirty wars' of the 1980s, and links to death squads working in Central America at that time. Washington's involvement in the turbulent events that briefly removed left-wing leader Hugo Chavez from power last weekend resurrects fears about US ambitions in the hemisphere.It also also deepens doubts about policy in the region being made by appointees to the Bush administration, all of whom owe their careers to serving in the dirty wars under President Reagan.One of them, Elliot Abrams, who gave a nod to the attempted Venezuelan coup, has a conviction for misleading Congress over the infamous Iran-Contra affair. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/21/usa.venezuela

July 2002 CIA's Special Activities Division teams enter Iraq.

October 16, 2002 – Iraq Resolution aka: Iraq War Resolution; joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.

November 27, 2002 – U.S. President George W Bush appoints Henry Kissinger to head the national commission investigating the World Trade Center attacks of 9-11.
December 13, 2002 – Henry Kissinger is forced to withdraw from the World Trade Center commission once it is realized exactly how much conflict of interest he has accumulated in the last several years of consultation work. Refusing to sever ties with or reveal the client list of his consulting firm Kissinger Associates, Henry Kissinger abruptly resigns.

2003

March 20, 2003 – Iraq War begins as the United States and United Kingdom, assisted by smaller forces from several other countries, launch invasion of Ba'athist Iraq.
November 24 2003 – Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1518 (2003) as the successor body to the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 661 (1990) concerning Iraq and Kuwait. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1518/index.shtml

2006

December 26, 2006 – U.S. Signals Backing for Ethiopian Incursion Into Somalia – http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/27/world/africa/27africa.html

2007

May 2007

  • Israel, US, and Egypt back Fatah's fight against HamasMay 25, 2007 – The Bush administration has spent most of its $84 million in aid to Palestinians to train an elite corps of Fatah-loyal fighters. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0525/p07s02-wome.html
  • Bush sanctions 'black ops' against IranMay 27, 2007 – President George W Bush has given the CIA approval to launch covert "black" operations to achieve regime change in Iran, intelligence sources have revealed.Mr Bush has signed an official document endorsing CIA plans for a propaganda and disinformation campaign intended to destabilise, and eventually topple, the theocratic rule of the mullahs.Under the plan, pressure will be brought to bear on the Iranian economy by manipulating the country's currency and international financial transactions.Details have also emerged of a covert scheme to sabotage the Iranian nuclear programme, which United Nations nuclear watchdogs said last week could lead to a bomb within three years. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1552784/Bush-sanctions-black-ops-against-Iran.html
  • Bush Authorizes New Covert Action Against Iran May 22, 2007 – The CIA has received secret presidential approval to mount a covert "black" operation to destabilize the Iranian government, current and former officials in the intelligence community tell the Blotter on ABCNews.com. The sources, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the subject, say President Bush has signed a "nonlethal presidential finding" that puts into motion a CIA plan that reportedly includes a coordinated campaign of propaganda, disinformation and manipulation of Iran's currency and international financial transactions. http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2007/05/bush_authorizes/

June 7 – 15, 2007 – Battle of Gaza: Hamas and Fatah engage in military conflict in the Gaza Strip.

  • The Gaza Bombshell – After failing to anticipate Hamas's victory over Fatah in the 2006 Palestinian election, the White House cooked up yet another scandalously covert and self-defeating Middle East debacle: part Iran-contra, part Bay of Pigs. With confidential documents, corroborated by outraged former and current U.S. officials, the author reveals how President Bush, Condoleezza Rice, and Deputy National-Security Adviser Elliott Abrams backed an armed force under Fatah strongman Muhammad Dahlan, touching off a bloody civil war in Gaza and leaving Hamas stronger than ever. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/04/gaza200804

2008

2009

November 17, 2009 – U.S. President Barack Obama meets Chinese President Hu Jintao at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, China.

2010

2010 – UN Convention on Biological Diversity declares moratorium on experiments in the sea and space, except for small-scale scientific studies.

2011

January 19, 2011 – China's President welcomed to the White House as the two nations emphasize cooperation.

February 2011 – Libyan Intervention Begins

December 2011 – U.S. completed its withdrawal of military personnel from Iraq.

2012

March 20, 2012 – LEAKED STRATFOR EMAILS: The US Government Sent Blackwater Veteran To Fight With Rebels In Libya And Syria. http://articles.businessinsider.com/2012-03-20/news/31212864_1_stratfor-provides-syrian-opposition-regime-change
July 27, 2012 – US Authorizes Financial Support For the Free Syrian Army – http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2012/al-monitor/us-authorizes-financial-support.html
August 1, 2012 – Exclusive: Obama authorizes secret U.S. support for Syrian rebels – http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/01/us-usa-syria-obama-order-idUSBRE8701OK20120801
September 28, 2012 – U.S. formally drops Iranian MEK dissident group from terrorism list – http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/28/iraq-iran-mek-idUSL1E8KSENJ20120928
October 2012 – Obama's October surprise – exposed by Benghazi? – http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/50650
October 2012 – The REAL October Surprise May Be Hiding in Plain Sight – http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/breakout/real-october-surprise-may-hiding-plain-sight-160105809.html
October 2012 – The Benghazi October Surprise-Death Blow To Obama Administration Or Survivable Spin Miscalculation? – http://www.forbes.com/sites/rickungar/2012/10/10/the-benghazi-october-surprise-death-blow-to-obama-administration-or-survivable-spin-miscalculation/
November 2012 – November Surprise – Forget October bombshells.- http://www.foreignpolicy.com/node/1327086?page=full

2013

January 18, 2013 – China's First Defense: Bodyguards Train to Protect Chinese Interests Abroad – http://world.time.com/2013/01/18/chinas-first-defense-bodyguards-train-to-protect-chinese-interests-abroad/

Further Research

…currently updating on an ongoing and regular basis
Last updated: 06Dec2013



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