This Timelines Project is part of another collaborative effort related to historical issues as they relate to “political” blow-back. We will update this page as soon as we receive new data. Please note that this is a rather long page and will take some time before we can divide it down into periods, centuries, decades and events. If anyone is interested in participating please let us know. Considering our history is so tightly tied to the of the UK, we began this timeline with 1066 AD.
Please remember, information is a contact sport, like hockey, so feel free to add contributions and relevant information as a comment below and/or Contact us if you would like to contribute to our collaborative efforts in any way, or if you would like to share/submit articles, data or additional content…
Backgrounder: The Timelines
In this sub-project of the #ShagTheDog Project will dissect the data and create a sequential timeline of blow-back triggers based upon the research associated with never-ending "Blowback". Research and data crunching uncovers that since the mid-late 1800's blow-back cycles are re-generated beginning with destabilization efforts and violence in Asia, Middle East and Africa to "austerity" and violence in Europe and the America's. As time progresses, smaller and more focused timelines will be created to break down the compiled data into various scenarios and periods of time.
As far as Treaties, Trade Routes and Free Trade are concerned, this is done for specific reasons, usually related to protecting and/or enhance global corporate investors interests, control markets & currencies, expand current regional labour exploitation, open new markets for exploitation, acquire access to new resources, displace inhabitants and occupy territory. At the end of the day, “Free Trade Agreements” and/or “Treaties” are “signed” on behalf of the displaced and occupied inhabitants, (Natives, Aboriginal Peoples, Clans, Tribes, Residents, Settlers, Colonists), via appointed proxies.
Cycles and trends emerge rather rapidly and several key players over the past century are always involved and the subsequent beneficiaries while the inhabitants and/or tax-payers bear the financial, emotional and physical costs.
Therefore, we feel it is necessary to include the little known, less publicized and recently declassified back-stories as well. This allows for a broader picture to emerge of how Banksters (global investors), Big Oil, Big Ore and “Governments” bankrupt “States” by utilizing War Measures, (mercenaries,terrorism,genocide,starvation), under false pretenses to restrict freedom and liberty and instill fear.
Please feel free to share and/or suggest additional details, dates, topics, events, ideas, links, info-graphics, etc. as a comment below or by email: ottawapiskat [at] live [dot] ca
1066 — 1066 is considered one of those dates in Medieval England which is difficult to forget. At the start of 1066, England was ruled by Edward the Confessor. By the end of the year, a Norman – William the Conqueror – was king after defeating Edward’s successor, Harold, at the Battle of Hastings. With three kings in one year, a legendary battle in October and a Norman in charge of England, it is little wonder that people rarely forget the year 1066. Many historians view 1066 as the start of Medieval England .
October 14, 1066 — The Battle of Hastings (14 October 1066) was fought between the Norman army of William the Conqueror, and the English army led by Harold Godwinson. It was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England.
- The Battle of Hastings – http://worldhistoryproject.org/1066/10/14/the-battle-of-hastings
- Invasion of England, 1066 The Battle of Hastings EyeWitnesstoHistory.com – King Edward of England (called "The Confessor" because of his construction of Westminster Abbey) died on January 5, 1066, after a reign of 23 years. Leaving no heirs, Edward's passing ignited a three-way rivalry for the crown that culminated in the Battle of Hastings and the destruction of the Anglo-Saxon rule of England. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/bayeux.htm
- In everything we say, there is an echo of 1066 By Alan Massie 7:00PM BST 13 Oct 2012 – It is well-nigh impossible to imagine how different British history would have been if Harold had defeated William at Senlac Hill. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/9606163/In-everything-we-say-there-is-an-echo-of-1066.html
- 1066 By Dr Mike Ibeji 2011-02-17 – The year 1066 began with the death of a king, and ended with a shout and a trembling new monarch. The political scheming and hotly fought battles of the months in between made it a year that has never been forgotten – Mike Ibeji tells the tale. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_01.shtml
August 5, 1100 — Coronation Charter of Henry Ⅰ issued.
- Henry Ⅰ's coronation charter (Hn cor) Institute of Historical Research / King's College London – This coronation charter, published on 5 August 1100 and likely circulated to every shire, announced that Henry Ⅰ had been crowned, but also listed a number of ameliorations of the law. The standard affirmed is that of the law under Edward the Confessor (1041–1065), while the laws amended are those that were in force under Henry's father, William Ⅰ (1066–1087), and brother, William Ⅱ (1087–1100). http://www.earlyenglishlaws.ac.uk/laws/texts/hn-cor/
- CARTA LIBERTATUM (The Charter of Liberties) THE CORONATION CHARTER OF KING HENRY THE FIRST Granted August 5th AD. 1100 Based on the translation in Albert Beebe White and Wallace Notestein, eds., Source Problems in English History, Harper and Brothers, New York,1915. With reference to Douglas and Greenway, eds., English Historical Documents 1042–1189, Eyre Methuen, London, 1982 and Richard Thomson, An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta of King John, John Major, London, 1829. – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/coroncharter-1100.htm
January 29, 1164 — Constitutions of Clarendon issued by Henry Ⅱ.
- THE CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON OF KING HENRY THE SECOND Agreed January 29th AD. 1164 Based on the translation in Henderson, Ernest F. Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, George Bell and Sons, London, 1896. With reference to Albert Beebe White and Wallace Notestein, eds., Source Problems in English History , Harper and Brothers, New York, 1915. – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/constclarendon-1164.htm
1214–1215 — Unknown Charter of Liberties drafted. Document from c.1214/15 which formed some part in the drafting of what became "Magna Carta". Its occasion was possibly the gathering of northern barons at Stamford. It begins with the re-affirmation of the coronation charter of Henry I. It then describes various concessions which King John offered as remedies to the grievances complained of: no arbitrary judgement, amendments to marriage and wardship law, various abuses of relief, restriction on liability for service abroad. These and other matters emerge in the final document known as Magna Carta. The original document is in the Archive Royaume in Paris. Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases. Christopher Coredon with Ann Williams.
June 15, 1215 — King John (1166–1216) of England's excessive and arbitrary exploitation of his feudal rights, along with his abuse of the justice system fuelled the rebellious and powerful "Barons of England" to revolt, and was forced into affixing his seal to "The Great Charter", aka: "Magna Carta", in order to avert civil war. For King John, the Magna Carta was a practical solution to a political crisis which primarily served the interests of the highest ranks of feudal society and most of its clauses deal with specific, and often long-standing, grievances, feudal rights, customs and the administration of justice rather than with general principles of law.
King John's increasingly tyrannical rule sparked the barons' rebellion in the first place and had no intention of abiding by the Magna Carta in the future. The 'elected' group of 'twenty-five' barons refused to give the king written pledges of fealty, failured to evacuate London by a date agreed by treaty, and ignored his lawful mandates. This duplicity instigated the Barons War fought between 1215–1217.
Though it was not initially successful, the document was reissued, with alterations, in 1216, 1217 and 1225, and eventually served as the foundation for the English system of common law. Just 10 weeks later, Pope Innocent III nullified the agreement, and England plunged into internal war. The pope stood with John against the barons when they forced him to grant the Magna Carta; Innocent declared it null as exacted by force, and as a vassal’s promise made without his overlord’s approval.
- CARTA LIBERTATUM (THE CHARTER OF LIBERTIES) OF KING JOHN Granted June 15th AD. 1215, IN THE SEVENTEENTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES OF LINCOLN CATHEDRAL BY RICHARD THOMSON, 1829 – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-1215.htm
- The Text of Magna Carta G. R. C. Davis, Magna Carta, Revised Edition, British Library, 1989. – http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/magnacarta.asp
- THE DOCUMENTS OF THE GREAT CHARTER OF 1215 BY ARTHUR JEFFERIES CQLLINS, Keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museum – http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/z/zsn2a047015.pdf [pdf]
- Magna Carta: A Commentary on the Great Charter of King John, with an Historical Introduction  by William Sharp McKechnie (Glasgow: Maclehose, 1914). – This is a detailed and meticulous edition of Magna Carta with each clause in the original Latin, followed by an English translation and heavily annotated by the editor. http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=338&Itemid=27
- Treasures in full: Magna Carta The Basics The British Library Board – http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics/basics.html
- Treasures in full: Magna Carta Timeline The British Library Board – http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/timeline/timeline.html
- Magna carta commemoration essays, with a preface by the Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce…ed. by Henry Elliot Malden. Malden, Henry Elliot,, Royal Historical Society (Great Britain) [London]: Royal historical society, 1917. – http://name.umdl.umich.edu/AEW8671.0001.001
- Magna carta commemoration essays (1917) Henry Elliot Malden, Royal Historical Society (Great Britain)
- –Magna carta celebration committee, 1914.
- –Preface by Viscount Bryce
- –Introduction by Henry Elliot Malden
- –Magna carta, 1215-1915, by Prof. McKechnie
- –Innocent III and the Charter, by Prof. G. B. Adams
- –Barons and knights in the Great charter, by J. H. Round
- –Clause 39, by Paul Vinogradoff
- –Per iudicium parium vel per legem terrae, by Prof. Powicke
- –Magna carta nd the common law, by Prof. McIlwain
- –The influence of Magna carta on American constitutional development, by H. D. Hazeltine
- –Magna carta and Spanish mediæval jurisprudence, by Rafael Altamira
- –Financial records of the reign of King John, by Hilary Jenkinson
- THE COMPLETE "MAGNA CARTA" TEXTS – This charter is the important document which the rebellious barons of England forced King John to accept at Runnymede to the west of London on 13th June 1215. It is very specific dealing mainly with feudal rights, protecting women and children within the justice system and taxation. There are echoes of two earlier charters: the Coronation Charter of Henry I which addressed abuses of royal power by his predecessor, his brother William Rufus, and the Constitutions of Clarendon issued by Henry II aimed at forcing the church to submit to the law of the nation as opposed to its own ecclesiastical law. However because the baron's charter was only agreed to under duress, it was not valid legislation and the king appealed to the pope. Pope Innocent III supported his appeal, revoked the charter on 24th August of that year and later excommunicated the rebellious barons. http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-intro.htm
- Magna Carta and Its American Legacy National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) – Before penning the Declaration of Independence–the first of the American Charters of Freedom–in 1776, the Founding Fathers searched for a historical precedent for asserting their rightful liberties from King George III and the English Parliament. They found it in a gathering that took place 561 years earlier on the plains of Runnymede, not far from where Windsor Castle stands today. There, on June 15, 1215, an assembly of barons confronted a despotic and cash-strapped King John and demanded that traditional rights be recognized, written down, confirmed with the royal seal, and sent to each of the counties to be read to all freemen. The result was Magna Carta–a momentous achievement for the English barons and, nearly six centuries later, an inspiration for angry American colonists. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/legacy.html
- Magna Carta, 1215 Avalon Project – Medieval Documents : 400 – 1399 – http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/magframe.asp
- Magna Carta 1215 http://www.middle-ages.org.uk – http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/magna-carta.htm
- Enforcers of Magna Carta (act. 1215–1216) by Matthew Strickland, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Oct 2005; online edn, May 2012 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/theme/93691, accessed ] – Enforcers of Magna Carta (act. 1215–1216) were a group of barons who stood in the forefront of the opposition to the increasingly tyrannical rule of King John, and were entrusted with the enforcement of the terms of Magna Carta, 'the great charter of liberties' as it was already known just ten years later, formally granted by him at Runnymede on 15 June 1215. http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/themes/93/93691.html
- The Twenty-five Barons Appointed to Enforce the Magna Carta Denis Gouey Bookbinding Studio – http://bookbinding.com/magna-carta-2/the-barons.html
August 24, 1215 — King John appeals to Pope Innocent Ⅲ accusing his baronial opponents of bad faith and failure to implement their side of the "The Great Charter", aka: "Magna Carta", settlement. In his bull, Etsi karissimus of 24 August 1215, Pope Innocent Ⅲ condemned the charter as "not only shameful and demeaning but also illegal and unjust, thereby lessening unduly and impairing his [the king's] royal rights and dignity". (Several historians have passed a similar judgement on the twenty-five as self-interested extremists.)
"Etsi Karissimus in Christo filius noster Johannes"
Innocent, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all the faithful of Christ who will read this letter, greeting and apostolic benediction.
John, the king of England, our dearest and illustrious son in Christ, has greatly offended God and church, and we have excommunicated him and placed his kingdom under ecclesiastical interdict. Under the inspiration of Him who does not wish the death of a sinner but a conversion that the sinner may live, has now had a change of heart. He has humbly rendered satisfaction to God and the Church. He has granted his kingdom and that of Ireland to blessed Peter and the Roman church. He has received it back from us as a fief [feudum] having promised us a tribute of one thousand marks each year. He has taken the oath of fealty to us. . . . And even wishing to please omnipotent God more has also taken the sign of the living cross and is making magnificient preparations to go to the aid of the Holy Land. But Satan, who is always envious of good deeds, has stirred up the barons of England against him with his deceitful strategems. . . . These vassals conspired against their lord and swore oaths publically against him. They joined with his enemies and others and presumed to wage war against him. They occupied and ravaged his lands and captured the city of London, the chief seat of the kingdom. The king appealed to our court and informed them that he would grant them justice before us, to whom this case belongs by reason of feudal lordship [ratione dominii pertinebat]. They completely refused to submit. Consequently John was compelled by force and fear, that would cause the most reasonable of men to fail [vir constantissimus], to enter an agreement with them that was not only vile and base, but illegal and iniquitous. This agreement diminished and derogated his rights together with his honor. Because the Lord has said to us through the prophet:
I have placed you over nations and over kingdoms to root up and to pull down, to overthrow and lay in ruins, to build and plant anew” [Jeremiah 1.10]
and also through another prophet:
Destroy the conspiracies of impiety and relieve those torments that wear the people down [Isaiah 58.6]
… With the counsel of our brothers the cardinals, we completely reject and condemn this agreement (Magna Carta) and order under the penalty of excommunication that the king should not obey it and that the barons with their accomplices should not ask that it be obeyed. . . .We declare that the charter and all things connected to it is null and void forever.
Written at Agnani, August 24, 1215, in the eighteenth year of our pontificate
Latin text taken from Selected Letters of Pope Innocent Ⅲ Concerning England (1198-1216), edited and translated by C.R. Cheney and W.H. Semple (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1953), pp. 212-216
Translated by K. Pennington
- Decretal Letters of Pope Innocent Ⅲ touching on Church and State Translated by K. Pennington – http://classes.maxwell.syr.edu/his311/Lecture%20Five/InnocentIIIChurchState.html
- Innocent the Great, an essay on his life and times (1907) Author: Pirie-Gordon, Charles Harry Clinton, b. 1883 – http://archive.org/details/innocentgreatan00rolfgoog
- THE LETTERS OF POPE INNOCENT Ⅲ BY C. R. CHENEY, M.A., F.B.A. – https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:1m2668&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-PUBLISHERS-DOCUMENT.PDF [pdf]
- Pope Innocent Ⅲ Also known as Lotario di Segni; Lotario de' Conti Terry H Jones – http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/pope0176.htm
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) begins.
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons backed by Louis, the son of King Philip Ⅱ Augustus of France, and King John.
- First Barons' War (1215–1217) Rickard, J. (25 August 2000) – A civil war caused by the failure of King John to honour the terms of the Magna Carta. The Barons offered the throne to Louis, son of Philip Ⅱ Augustus of France. King John campaigned successfully in the Midlands and the North, but when Louis landed in Kent in May 1216 John lost control of the south east. King John died in October 1216, and with his death the rebels lost much of their support, as the supporters of the nine year old Henry Ⅲ gained ground. The barons were defeated at Lincoln, and the French supply ships captured, forcing Louis to accept the treaty of Kingston-upon-Thames (12 September 1217), in which the rebels were granted an amnesty, and Louis agreed not to support any future rebellion. The moderate nature of the treaty helped place Henry Ⅲ's reign on a firmer footing. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_firstbarons.html
- First Barons' War http://www.physicsdaily.com – The war began over Magna Carta but quickly turned into a dynastic war for the throne of England. The rebel barons, faced with a powerful king, turned to the son of the king of France, Louis, son and heir apparent of king of France Philip Augustus. Louis landed in England on May 21, 1216 and marched on London where he was openly received by the rebel barons and citizens of London. Many of John's supporters, sensing a tide of change, moved to support to barons. http://cricket.www.physicsdaily.com/physics/Barons%27_War
- England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217 Archontology.org – http://www.archontology.org/nations/uk/england/king_england/01_louis_france.php
- On the increase of royal power in France under Philip Augustus, 1179–1223 (1888) Author: Wilker, Williston, 1860–1922 – http://archive.org/details/onincreaseofroya00wilkrich
November 12, 1216 — William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, issues a revised version of Magna Carta in his capacity as Regent and protectorate of nine-year-old Henry Ⅲ. with some of the clauses, including clause 61, omitted.
- THE FIRST GREAT CHARTER OF KING HENRY THE THIRD, Granted November 12th AD. 1216 IN THE FIRST YEAR OF HIS REIGN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL BY RICHARD THOMSON, 1829 – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-1216.htm
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) ends.
September 1217 — The Second Treaty of Lambeth, aka: the Treaty of Kingston, ends the campaign known as the First Barons' War.
November 6, 1217 — The "Charter of the Forest" of King Henry Ⅲ was issued by William Marshal in the second year of Henry's reign.
- Ⅷ.: CARTA DE FORESTA.1 (6 november, 1217.) – Magna Carta: A Commentary on the Great Charter of King John, with an Historical Introduction  Online Library of Liberty – http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/338/49167
- The Charter of the Forest of King Henry Ⅲ St John’s College Research Centre, University of Oxford
- The Charter of the Forest and its relationship to Magna Carta
- A facsimile of the Charter of the Forest
- An English translation of the Charter of the Forest
- THE SECOND GREAT CHARTER OF KING HENRY THE THIRD Granted November 6th AD. 1217, IN THE SECOND YEAR OF HIS REIGN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL BY RICHARD THOMSON, 1829 – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-1217.htm
February 11, 1225 — King Henry Ⅲ, who has come of age, issues a substantially revised version of Magna Carta under his own great seal.
- Ⅶ.: THE GREAT CHARTER OF HENRY Ⅲ.2 (third reissue, 11th february, 1225.) – Magna Carta: A Commentary on the Great Charter of King John, with an Historical Introduction  Online Library of Liberty – http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=338&chapter=49165&layout=html&Itemid=27
- THE THIRD GREAT CHARTER OF KING HENRY THE THIRD, Granted February 11th AD. 1224/25 IN THE NINTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL BY RICHARD THOMSON, 1829 – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/magnacarta-1225.htm
The Second Barons' War (1258–1265) begins.
On 30 April 1258 a group of barons, led by Roger Bigod, the earl of Norfolk and hereditary marshal, marched to the hall of the royal palace at Westminster and induced the king to initiate a programme of reform. The barons sought to address a raft of financial and judicial grievances that had arisen during the last twenty-four years of the king's personal rule. The king accepted, believing the barons would further the 'Sicilian Business' in return. On 2 May, the reform movement set to work. The barons did not publish their reforms, nor, initially, their grievances, but two documents, known to historians as the Petition of the Barons and the Provisions of Oxford, drafted between April and June 1258, describe a series of problems and strategies which they discussed.1 From these documents three areas of reform stand out.
- Introduction to Reign: Henry Ⅲ Fine Rolls Project The National Archives and King's College London – King Henry Ⅲ ruled for fifty-six years between 16 October 1216 and 16 November 1272. His is the third longest reign in English history. During this period the social and political landscape of England was changed irrevocably. Henry's reign saw the implementation of Magna Carta and the beginnings of parliament. There was population growth and economic expansion. England's relations with Europe were also transformed. By the time of Henry's death, the Angevins (England's ruling dynasty) had secured marital alliances with the kingdoms of Castile, France and Scotland, as well as the empire. But achievement went hand-in-hand with failure. The money getting operations of Henry's government were burdensome to the people and politically contentious. Henry's relationship with the English aristocracy was volatile. In 1258, riding the waves of complaint, a group of barons swept to power and took control of central government from the kings's hands. The barons initiated a three-year period of reform, which was ultimately to lead to a bitter civil war. Between the baronial victory at the battle of Lewes (14 May 1264) and the royalist triumph at the battle of Evesham (4 August 1265), the king was a captive of his brother-in-law, the earl of Leicester, Simon de Montfort. Historical opinion is divided as to whether one of England's longest-ruling monarchs was malevolent or misunderstood, benevolent and benign or fickle and foolhardy. Historians typically divide Henry's reign into four chronological periods:
- – The Minority of Henry Ⅲ and its aftermath, 1216–1234
- – The Personal rule of Henry Ⅲ, 1234–1258
- – The Period of reform and rebellion, 1258–1267
- – The Final years, 1267–1272
- The Baronial Reform Movement in England, 1258–1267 Lin Zhiqiang – The Baronial Reform Movement which began in England in 1258 arose from the infringement on certain baronial interests of the expansion of royal power,but the fact that it erupted in that particular year was closely tied to the specific historical environment of the time.The barons who were against the King took control at one point,but their differing motivations meant that their cooperation did not last long.The civil war and the baronial administration which began in 1263 were particularly lacking in legitimacy in terms of law and tradition.Even though the Baronial Reform Movement failed to curb the long term rise in royal power,it prevented Henry Ⅲ from undue expansion of royal power and corrected some longstanding problems.As a program of action for the barons,the "Provisions of Oxford" was influential in later generations and cast an important influence to generations to come,and the baronial council laid the foundations for the birth of the mediaeval English parliament. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-LSYJ200406009.htm
- The Barons' War (1258–65) Online Companion to Middle English Literature – Political misjudgement at home, failures abroad, and massive debts led to baronial opposition against Henry Ⅲ in 1258. The king's unwise judgement in favour of the Lusignian family in a quarrel against the baron John FitzGeoffrey was taken as the occasion for the barons' opposition under the leadership of Simon de Montfort. The Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259) limited the royal power to a by far greater extent than had been determined by Magna Carta. Increasing disunity of the barons, however, helped the king to regain political control in 1261. The only baron who refused to accept Henry was Simon de Montfort who withdrew to his estates in France. In 1263 Simon returned to England and succeded in re-uniting a baronial reform movement, though on a much smaller scale than in 1258. Under Simon's command the reformers' army won a decisive victory over Henry and his loyal followers at Lewes in 1264. The king, his brother Richard, and Prince Edward were taken prisoners. The realm was ruled by a council presided by Earl Simon. Yet, within months, the barons' faction crumbled by defection and Edward managed to escape. In 1265, Simon de Montfort was defeated and killed at the battle of Evesham.
- Montfortians act. (1258–1265) by J. R. Maddicott – Montfortians (act. 1258–1265) were the followers of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, during the movement of baronial reform and rebellion that he helped to initiate in 1258 and subsequently came to lead. Most steadfast among them were the family members, friends, and landed neighbours and retainers who formed his inner circle. The higher nobility provided him with a few intermittent allies, but the baronial Montfortians were mainly drawn from a rather lower social level. Beyond these men lay an outer circle of political sympathizers, chiefly country gentry but also embracing the much more varied sorts of men and women who journeyed to the earl's shrine at Evesham after his death in battle there in 1265. http://www.oxforddnb.com/templates/theme-print.jsp?articleid=95590
October 12, 1297 — King Edward Ⅰ confirms Henry Ⅲ's 1225 version of Magna Carta: this text is subsequently placed on the first statute roll.
- THE CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF KING EDWARD THE FIRST Granted November 5th, 1297, IN THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN. – http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/History/MagnaCarta/confcharter-1297.htm
February 14, 1301 — King Edward Ⅰ issues his last confirmation of the Magna Carta.
THE LAST CONFIRMATION OF THE CHARTERS OF LIBERTIES,
KING EDWARD THE FIRST
Granted February 14th, 1300/1301,
IN THE TWENTY-NINTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN.
EDWARD, by the Grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine, to all to whom the present Letters shall come. Greeting.
Know ye that we have granted and confirmed the Great Charter of the Liberties of England, with a Charter also for the Forests, of the Lord Henry, formerly King of England, our father, which we have renewed by our Charter; and we command, that those Charters in all their articles shall be firmly held and observed: We also will, and have granted for us and our heirs, that if any statute shall be contrary to the said Charters, or to any article contained in the said Charters, the same shall be amended, or even annulled by the common council of our realm, in testimony of which thing we have caused these our letters to be made patent. Witness, myself, at Lincoln, the fourteenth day of February, in the twenty-ninth year of our reign.
The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between England and France begins.
The Hundred Years' War, lasting from 1337 until 1453, was a defining time
for the history of both England and France. The war started in May 1337 when
King Philip Ⅵ of France attempted to confiscate the English territories
in the duchy of Aquitaine (located in Southwestern France). It ended in July
1453 when the French finally expelled the English from the continent (except
for Calais). The Hundred Years War was a series of chevauchees (plundering
raids), sieges and naval battles interspersed with truces and uneasy
- The Hundred Years War: Overview OSU Department of History –
eHistory is in the process of creating a MultiMedia History for the Hundred
Years War; in the meantime we’ve gathered most of the materials from the
old site here until the new pages are ready. Readers might also be interested
in our online translation of the Chronicles
of Froissart which is considered
a key primary source on the era, as well as our timeline
of the Hundred Years War in our Timelines. http://ehistory.osu.edu/middleages/hundredyearswar/overview.cfm
- The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) [100 Years' War] Luminarium – HUNDRED YEARS' WAR. This name is given to the protracted conflict between France and England from 1337 to 1453, which continued through the reigns of the French kings Philip Ⅵ, John Ⅱ, Charles Ⅴ, Charles Ⅵ, Charles Ⅶ, and of the English kings Edward Ⅲ, Richard Ⅱ, Henry Ⅳ, Henry Ⅴ and Henry Ⅵ. The principal causes of the war, which broke out in Guienne in 1337,were the disputes arising in connexion with the French possessions of the English kings, in respect to which they were vassals of the kings of France; the pretensions of Edward Ⅲ to the French throne after the accession of Philip Ⅵ; Philip's intervention in the affairs of Flanders and Scotland; and, finally, the machinations of Robert of Artois. http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/100years.htm
- The Hundred Years' War HistoryLearningSite.co.uk – The Hundred Years' War was a series of wars between England and France. The background of the Hundred Years' War went as far back as to the reign of William the Conqueror. When William the Conqueror became king in 1066 after his victory at the Battle of Hastings, he united England with Normandy in France. William ruled both as his own. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/hundred_years_war.htm
- The Hundred Years' War: What was it? Dr. L. Kip Wheeler – The Hundred Years' War was a long struggle between England and France over succession to the French throne. It lasted from 1337 to 1453, so it might more accurately be called the "116 Years' War." The war starts off with several stunning successes on Britain's part, and the English forces dominate France for decades. Then, the struggle see-saws back and forth. In the 1360s, the French are winning. From 1415–1422, the English are winning. After 1415, King Henry Ⅴ of England revives the campaign and he conquers large portions of France, winning extraordinary political concessions. From 1422 onward, however, the French crown strikes back. The teenage girl Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc), a remarkable young mystic, leads the French troops to reclaim their lands. Here's the brief outline of events, with major battles put in bold red color: http://web.cn.edu/KWHEELER/Hundred_Years.html
- Hundred Years War http://www.middle ages.org.uk – http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/hundred-years-war.htm
1407 — Bank of St George, aka: "Company of Saint George", "Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio", was founded in 1407 in the Republic of Genoa. A number of prominent Genoese families were involved in the establishment and governance of the Bank, including the Houses of Grimaldi & Serra.
- Official archives of the House and Bank of St. George (Italian) – http://www.lacasadisangiorgio.it/
- Genoa and the history of finance: a series of FIRSTS? Giuseppe Felloni – http://www.giuseppefelloni.it – http://www.giuseppefelloni.it/rassegnastampa/Genova%20e%20la%20storia%20della%20finanza.pdf [pdf]
- Chapter 1: Public Debt Abstract In ancient times the power of the state was based upon treasures accumulated during prosperous, peaceful times by its rulers or, more often, upon the spoils of war. Nowadays it is nearly entirely based upon public debt, that is, money lent to the governing authority by private citizens. The present day system is the result of a long evolution which began in the Middle Ages and developed within the Italian city-states; the oldest records of public debt date back to the mid. Ⅻ century and relate to the city of Genoa: loans made by private citizens to the state and granted with a public revenue as security ("compere"). This was the same founding principle on which public debt of the big European monarchies was based from the ⅩⅥ century onwards.
- Chapter 2: Government Bonds Abstract The amount of money needed by local government is usually too much for a single investor to lend. A large number of subscribers with equal rights to interest and repayment of capital has to be brought together to provide the entire sum. In order to simplify calculations on such large sums of money and attract investment, the capital is divided into shares with the same nominal value and the same privileges, and the subscriber can sell them on to a third party in exchange for cash. The earliest record of this practice is again to be found in Genoa: during the early ⅩⅢ century public debt ("compere") was divided into shares ("luoghi", in Latin "loca", sing. "locus") with a nominal value of 100 lire. The "luoghi" could be disposed of at the owner's will and, shortly after their issue, became tax-free and could not be confiscated by the state.
- Chapter 3: Public debt reform Abstract The world of public debt is full of ups and downs, sometimes to the advantage of the state and the disadvantage of its creditors, or vice versa. When government needs funds it offers high interest rates, which deplete public revenues, enriching the creditors but also compromising the smooth running of the bureaucratic machine. Inevitably there comes a point when the state has to alter the original terms of the loan introducing various reforms: consolidation of matured loans, introduction of a lower interest rate, unification of various debts to achieve economies of scale. In Genoa expansion and reforms to public debt were particularly frequent, leading to an accelerated evolution of financial techniques and to the formation of a strong group of public creditors.
- Chapter 4 – The House of St. George: a state within a state Abstract The House of St. George in Genoa is an institution without equal, both for its multifaceted nature and for its fundamental role in the world of finance: It started in 1407 as a consortium of public creditors to which the state ceded a large number of tax revenues and almost immediately (1408) started a banking activity, backed by the cash flow from public revenues. In exchange for loans to the state it received sovereign control of near and distant territories, which lasted until 1562. From the late ⅩⅥ century onwards the House of St George reorganised its banking activities opening more "branches" depending on the currency it was dealing with and at the beginning of the ⅩⅦ century started issuing nominal fiduciary bills.
- Chapter 5 – Discount on state Bond coupons Abstract Discount is one of the most powerful tools for stimulation of the economy because it makes cash available in advance of an as yet unmatured credit and thereby increases the amount of capital immediately available. The oldest record of the systematic and general use of discount is to be found in Genoa in the mid ⅩⅤ century. It consisted of the discount on the earnings (or "paghe") of public debt bonds (the "luoghi" of St. George).
- Chapter 6 – Repayment of public debt and establishment of Sinking funds Abstract The gradual extinction of a debt requires that the contracted sums of money be available at the agreed dates. The money can be provided by the capitalisation of a purpose-built fund. The repayment of public debt in Genoa by using sinking funds is recorded from the second half of the ⅩⅣ century: it was a method used mainly by private citizens, who invested in government bonds and kept them at fixed compound interest ("moltiplici").
- Chapter 7 – Double entry and public accountancy Abstract A state with modest territories, but complex to manage both because of the one year duration of most of its public offices and the multiplicity of cash flows (both in and out); the need to distinguish between purely financial cash flows on the one hand and between revenues and expenses on the other; the necessity for an accounting system which would permit quick check and the easy spotting of mistakes. These were the main factors, which must have led the municipality of Genoa to apply the double entry system to the accounts of state; an accounting system introduced between 1327 (probably) and 1340, perhaps following the example of private bankers, but in any case before – unless proved otherwise – all other Italian and European states.
- Chapter 8 – The Lottery and selection to public office Abstract State officials were selected by a "draw" of the candidates for public office. The event was paired with a yearly lottery with stakes of 1 florin and a rich jackpot; a poor servant won the first prize of 1000 lire, a sum equal to the yearly salary of 10 chancellors… Where can one find such a combination of events between the end of the ⅩⅣ century and the beginning of the ⅩⅤ century ? Only in Genoa.
- Chapter 9 – Clearing house Abstract The increase in exchange is a powerful factor in economic growth, as long as there is no shortage of the means of payment. If this happens, the multiplication of business transactions stops. A clever way to overcome the problem is with the balancing of debits and credits: an easy process when only two people are involved but more complicated with several people in the picture. A solution to this was presented by the clearing houses linked to the Genoese exchange fairs (at their height between 1580 and 1630) where the business transactions of half of Europe were conducted and cleared. Only later, in 1773, the first clearing house of the contemporary era would open: the London Clearing House.
- Chapter 10 – The protection of financial capital and the “very wise” laws of Genoa Abstract Right from its beginning the monetary market has been characterised by two linked, secular phenomena: devaluation of the unit of account and price inflation. These have implications for the settlement of term bonds: the loss of value in currency between the time of entering into a debt and the time of its repayment can fall: 1) on the debtor, if the principle of equality between the purchasing power of the money loaned and that of the money refunded is applied; or 2) on the creditor, if the nominalist principle of numeric equality between the units of account given and those received is applied. The problem was well known in Genoa and after the first measures devised by creditors to transfer the loss to the debtor, a well constructed act of law was passed to deal with this matter.
- Chapter 11 – The archives of the Bank of St George: a goldmine for sources of information on the history of finance (… and more) Abstract The archives of the House of the "compere" and banks of St George, come to us largely intact, provide an extraordinary source of information on local history, on the history of finance in general and on aspects of social equilibrium, business organisation, customs administration, etc. In order to make this documentary heritage easily accessible to scholars, a detailed catalogue is being prepared to illustrate its components, contents and potential.
- Chapter 1: Public Debt Abstract In ancient times the power of the state was based upon treasures accumulated during prosperous, peaceful times by its rulers or, more often, upon the spoils of war. Nowadays it is nearly entirely based upon public debt, that is, money lent to the governing authority by private citizens. The present day system is the result of a long evolution which began in the Middle Ages and developed within the Italian city-states; the oldest records of public debt date back to the mid. Ⅻ century and relate to the city of Genoa: loans made by private citizens to the state and granted with a public revenue as security ("compere"). This was the same founding principle on which public debt of the big European monarchies was based from the ⅩⅥ century onwards.
September 25, 1555 — The Religious Peace of Augsburg signed. The "Diet of Augsburg (1555)" is widely viewed as the turning point between the tumultuous age of the Protestant Reformation in the German lands and the subsequent era of confessional formation and negotiation. In the wake of two wars – the Smalkaldic War of 1546–47 and the Princes' War of 1552 – King Ferdinand and the leading princes decided to move toward a negotiated, provisional arrangement of the religious question. The Diet of Augsburg was important in many respects, but its central achievement was its provisions on religion, "the Religious Peace." Briefly stated, the Religious Peace made political restoration possible by accepting what had previously been regarded as an impossibility – namely, religious diversity. http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=4386&language=english
The Bank of Amsterdam, "Amsterdamsche Wisselbank", was established by the Dutch House of Orange in 1609 and rose to become a major hub of world monetary affairs in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As a so-called bank of deposit, the Bank of Amsterdam hardly resembled anything we now call a bank. It rarely even made loans, with the exception of loans to Dutch municipalities and to the Dutch East India Company. The bank held deposits of major currencies and facilitated payment in foreign trade transactions.
The model for the Bank of Amsterdam were banks in the small Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, where the circulating money consisted of a medley of currencies issued by home governments and neighboring states. Currency that flowed in to these areas from trading partners was often clipped and worn, creating uncertainty about the value of foreign bills of exchange paid in these currencies. To remove this uncertainty these small city-states required that foreign bills of exchange above a certain amount be paid in transfers between accounts in a bank rather than in domestic currency. Special banks enjoying full government backing were established to handle these transactions.
Before 1609 the prevalence of worn and clipped coins had depreciated the value of Amsterdam's currency by 9 percent below the value of currency fresh from the mint. With Amsterdam's merchants running short of good money to pay bills of exchange, the government created the Bank of Amsterdam as a means of providing a currency of uniform value. The bank was a bank of deposit, accepting deposits of currencies at face value, foreign or domestic, worn, clipped, or freshly minted. Depositors paid a small recoinage and management fee deducted from each deposit. The balance on a depositor's account constituted a form of money called money of account or bank money and it never suffered any kind of debasement. Its value remained the same as if it were fresh from the mint. Along with the establishment of the bank came the legal requirement that foreign bills of exchange drawn on Amsterdam, equal to or greater than 600 guilders, be drawn for payment in bank money.
The Bank of Amsterdam also took deposits of bullion, giving each customer a receipt valued in bank money for a deposit of bullion, and crediting the customer's account of bank money in an amount equal to the value of the bullion deposit. The receipt entitled the customer to buy back the bullion with bank money at the price stated on the receipt. The customer paid a modest fee to the bank for storage of the bullion, and if the customer defaulted on the storage fee, the bank took possession of the bullion and sold it as part of the bank's profit. The bank money was much more convenient to handle than bullion and just as good in the eyes of European bankers. Vast deposits of coin and bullion made the Bank of Amsterdam an important holder of the reserves of the European monetary system, putting the bank in a position to play a regulatory role.
Because the Bank of Amsterdam was not a lending institution it stored all the currency and bullion deposited with it in readiness to redeem its outstanding bank money. Bank money was superior to currency and merchants were willing to pay a premium for it, enabling the bank to earn income by selling its bank money at a premium.
In the 1780s wartime difficulties forced the bank to underwrite loans to merchants in difficulty, and the bank saw its reserves drop substantially relative to the deposits of bank money owed to the public. The public turned cautious, and when the French invaded in 1795, caution turned to panic. Unable to redeem all the deposits of coins and bullion, the bank closed down. In 1802 a forced loan allowed the bank to reopen its doors, but it was not successful, and in 1820 the Bank of Amsterdam was liquidated.
- Archive of the Bank of Amsterdam (Wisselbank) at the Amsterdam City Archives – https://stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl/english/archives_database/overzicht/5077.en.html>
- The Big Problem of Large Bills: The Bank of Amsterdam and the Origins of Central Banking Stephen Quinn ; William Roberds (2005) Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Paper 2005–16. – http://www.frbatlanta.org/filelegacydocs/wp0516.pdf [pdf]
- The Dutch Monetary Environment During Tulipmania Doug French (2006) Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 9 (1) – http://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae9_1_1.pdf [pdf]
- The Bank of Amsterdam and the Leap to Central Bank Money By Stephen Quinn and William Roberds – http://aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2007/0106_1015_1201.pdf [pdf]
- The Origins of Fraudulent Banking and Government Finance: The Bank of Amsterdam The Motley Fool – http://caps.fool.com/Blogs/the-origins-of-fraudulent/236895
- Fiat money, central banking and the Bank of Amsterdam: Atlanta Fed research Central Banking Newsdesk, Central Banking | 23 Dec 2010 – Atlanta Federal Reserve paper uses Bank of Amsterdam example to explore effects of fiat money on central bank functions. http://www.centralbanking.com/central-banking/research/1934306/fiat-money-central-banking-bank-amsterdam-atlanta-fed-research
- Historic Amsterdam financial centre revisited By Karel Berkhout 31-12-2009 – A new exhibition at Amsterdam's City Archives chronicles its tumultuous history as one of the world's main financial centres. http://www.nrc.nl/international/Features/article2448628.ece/Historic_Amsterdam_financial_centre_revisited
- Central Banking The Daily Bell – http://www.thedailybell.com/floatWindow.cfm?id=2958M
- The Lost Science of Money – The Mythology of Money – The Story of Power: The Bank of Amsterdam Part 3 of a Review of a book by Stephen Zarlenga, American Monetary Institute, NY – http://www.sustecweb.co.uk/past/sustec13-3/Lost%20Science%20of%20Money.htm
July 1609 — The Bohemian Religious Peace issued by Emperor Rudolph Ⅱ for the kingdom of Bohemia. The edict (called a "Letter of Majesty") confirmed to each of the recognized confessions the right to practice its faith without coercion. Making good on a promise that Rudolph's father, Maximilian Ⅱ, had made in 1575 to the Bohemian estates, the edict departed drastically from the religious settlement of 1555 for the German lands. http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=4501&startrow=1
The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) begins. [?]
The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was the most destructive conflict in Europe before the twentieth-century world wars. There are several explanations of what caused the war, but these rarely discuss the merits of alternative interpretations, nor do they make their own underlying assumptions explicit. Anglophone scholarship generally fits the war into a wider struggle against Spanish Habsburg hegemony, whereas older German writing saw it as a conflict beginning in the Holy Roman Empire but fusing with wars elsewhere. Others place greater emphasis on structural causes, interpreting the war as the culmination of a 'General Crisis of the seventeenth century' attributed to social, economic or environmental factors. More recently, there has been a return to the view that it was a religious war, or that it was a 'state-building war' related to the transition from medieval to modern political organisation. This article reviews these approaches and investigates how they work as historical explanations, before suggesting an alternative. It identifies the difficulty in defining the war as a chief obstacle to explaining its causes. While related to other European conflicts, the Thirty Years War was primarily a struggle over the political and religious order within the Empire. It was neither inevitable, nor the result of irreconcilable religious antagonism. Rather, it stemmed from a coincidence of tension within the Empire with a political and dynastic crisis within the Habsburg monarchy that undermined confidence in the emperor’s ability to resolve long-standing constitutional problems. [?]
- The Thirty Years War Chris Atkinson
- Introduction to the Thirty Years War
- Background to the Thirty Years War
- The Bohemian Phase of the Thirty Years War (1618–1621)
- The Palatinate Phase of the Thirty Years War (1621–1624)
- The Danish Phase of the Thirty Years War (1625–1630)
- The Swedish Phase of the Thirty Years War (1630–1634)
- The French Phase of the Thirty Years War (1634–1648)
- The Thirty Years' War, Complete by Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805) – Project Gutenberg – http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6775
- EXCERPTS OF SOURCES ON THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [Readings in European History, J. H. Robinson, ed. and tr., vol. 2 (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1906), pp. 200–215] – http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Thirty.html
- Thirty Years' War Frank E. Smitha – http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h25-war.html
- The Thirty Years War Kevin Knight – http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14648b.htm
- The aftermath of the Thirty Years' War J.P.SOMMERVILLE – http://history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/351-05.htm
- Clues to the Thirty Years' War: Mass Grave Begins Revealing Soldiers' Secrets By Christoph Seidler April 27, 2012 – It was one of the bloodiest battles of the Thirty Years' War, but until recently there was no trace of those who died there. Now a mass grave is shedding light on the mysteries of the Battle of Lützen. Were those who fought hungry young men or well-fed veterans? And where did they come from? http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/mass-grave-from-thirty-years-war-investigated-in-luetzen-germany-a-830203.html
October 14–24, 1648 — Peace Treaties of Westphalia signed ending the Thirty Years War. The "Peace of Westphalia" was actually two treaties, each negotiated in a different seat of an Imperial prince-bishop in the land of Westphalia. On October 14/24, 1648, the treaty between Emperor Ferdinand Ⅲ and Queen Christina of Sweden and their respective allies was signed at Osnabrück (see part A, below); on the same day, the treaty between Ferdinand Ⅲ and King Louis ⅩⅣ of France and their respective allies was signed at Münster (see part B). For the Holy Roman Empire, the Peace meant a settlement to the political and territorial disputes that had begun with the German Reformation and an end to the conflicts sparked by the Bohemian conflict of 1618 and the Swedish invasion of June 1631. http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=3778&language=english
February 1700 – August 1721 — Third Northern War, aka: "Great Northern War (1700–1721)", begins between King Charles Ⅻ of Sweden on one side, and a coalition lead by Peter the Great of Russia, including Denmark–Norway and Saxony–Poland on the other, for supremacy of the Baltic area, Northern Europe, Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Several peace treaties brought and end to the conflicts with Sweden being defeated:
- November 1719 — Treaty of Stockholm was signed between Sweden and Hanover. Sweden handed over Bremen and Verden to Holstein in return for financial and naval support. The Elector of Hanover was George I.
- Jan–Feb 1720 — Treaty of Stockholm was signed between Sweden and Brandenburg. Sweden ceded Stettin, South Pomerania, the islands of Usedom and Wollin in return for money.
- July 1720 — Treaty of Fredriksborg was signed between Sweden and Denmark. Sweden gave up her exception from paying taxes to use the Sound. She also gave up Holstein-Gottorp.
- Aug–Sep 1721 — Treaty of Nystad was signed between Sweden and Russia with Sweden recognizing Russia’s hold on territory it had conquered, including Ingria, Estonia, Livonia, Vyborg (Viipuri), Kexholm (Piorzersk) and part of Karelia.
- 1731 — Peace of Oliva, aka: “Treaty of Oliva (1660)”, was renewed between Sweden and Poland and Sweden recognizes Augustus as King of Poland. It was one of several treaties that ended the Second Northern War in 1660.
- Sweden, Russia and the Great Northern War by Frank Smitha – http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/The%20Baltic%20States/nordkrieg.htm
- The Great Northern War HistoryLearningSite.co.uk – The Great Northern War lasted from 1700 to 1721. The Great Northern War was fought between Sweden’s Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great. By the end of the war, Sweden had lost her supremacy as the leading power in the Baltic region and was replaced by Peter the Great’s Russia. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/great_northern_war.htm
1701 — War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), aka: "Marlborough's Wars" begins, Ended with the "Treaty of Utrecht" in 1713.
- The Spanish Succession http://www.spanishsuccession.nl – This site is called the Spanish Succession. It's about the years 1700 till 1715, a time dominated by the War of the Spanish Succession. This era can be viewed from many perspectives. The goal of this site is to make this possible by providing a lot of background information and some good articles. The latter tend to go back to the primary source and to be verifyable by providing direct links to this source. http://www.spanishsuccession.nl
- The War of the Spanish Succession 1701–14 Nicole Kipar – The War of the Spanish Succession, also known as Marlborough's Wars (1702–13), fought in Europe and on the Mediterranean, were the last and the bloodiest of the Wars between England and France under Louis ⅩⅣ, and the first in which Britain played a major military role in European military affairs. http://www.kipar.org/military-history/kirkes_spanish_succession.html
- THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION Bamber Gascoigner – At the start, in 1701, the quarrel is specifically between France and Austria – or between Louis ⅩⅣ and the emperor Leopold Ⅰ. Each is fighting on behalf of a grandson or son who is not next in line of succession to the French or Austrian throne. Each of the candidates has been identified in the Spanish king's will, which states that if his crown is not accepted by one of the younger grandsons of Louis XIV it shall go to the younger son of Leopold Ⅰ (the archduke Charles). The list of nations involved in the war soon extends beyond France and Austria – perhaps inevitably in view of the importance of the issue, but also because of the aggressive stance taken by Louis ⅩⅣ. Alarmed by France's ambitious demands, England and Holland enter the fray in 1702 in support of the Austrian emperor. The emperor can also rely on many of the states within his German empire, among whom the most useful ally is Prussia (encouraged in 1701 by being elevated to a kingdom). The important exception among the German states is Bavaria, whose elector in 1702 joins the war on the side of France. Spain is with France (fulfilling the intention of the late king's will), as also are the neighbouring territories of Portugal and Savoy. These two are reluctant allies, acting mainly from fear of the Bourbons. Both change sides in 1703, when the fortunes of war favour the imperial side. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ad06
- What was the cause of the War of Spanish Succession? CliffsNotes.com – King Philip Ⅳ of Spain died in 1665, leaving behind only one surviving son, Charles, who became Charles Ⅱ. Charles Ⅱ – disfigured and mentally challenged – ascended the throne at the wee age of 4, the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs. He came to be known as El Hechizado, "The Bewitched," because it was popularly believed that his disfigurement was caused by sorcery. (It was more likely caused by generations of inbreeding.) So as not to overtax him physically or mentally, he was left totally uneducated and not even expected to keep himself clean. http://www.cliffsnotes.com/cliffsnotes/foreign-languages/what-was-the-cause-of-the-war-of-spanish-succession
- The War of Spanish Succession 1701–1714 World History at KMLA – http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/18cen/spansucc.html
- CHAPTER ⅩⅬⅤ THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, 1740–1748 A HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE FROM THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE TO THE WAR OF CRIMEA A.D. 1453–1900 – http://www.cristoraul.com/ENGLISH/history-of-europe/DYER-HISTORY-OF-MODERN-EUROPE-1453-1900/45-WAR-OF-THE-AUSTRIAN-SUCCESSION.html
May 4, 1702 — Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) begins as the North American theatre of the War of the Spanish Succession that began in Europe in 1701, ended with the "Treaty of Utrecht".
April 11, 1713 — The Treaty of Utrecht peace agreement was signed between England and France to end the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) in Europe and Queen Anne's War (1702–13) in the Americas. The Treaties of Utrecht which were agreed between March and April 1713 in the Dutch city of that name brought a formal end to the War of Spanish Succession. The war had nominally been about whether the Austrian Hapsburg monarchy would be able to nominate the successor to King Charles Ⅱ of Spain, a member of the collateral branch of the Hapsburg dynasty, or would allow the succession pass to Bourbon France. Behind this dynastic question, the war had really been about the European "balance of power" (a phrase first used around this time). The question was which parts of the declining Spanish empire would fall to Britain, France and Austria (also known as the Holy Roman Empire), and which parts would be left to Spain.
The Treaties of Utrecht (1713) François Velde – The Treaties of Utrecht, signed in 1713, put an end to the War of Spanish Succession (1701–13). The war resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after its Habsburg rulers became extinct in 1700. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles Ⅱ (d. 1700) had left the throne to his closest relative in female line: Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis ⅩⅣ (Felipe Ⅴ of Spain. The closest relatives in male line, the Habsburgs of Austria, disputed this claim, and many European nations did not want to see French princes reigning over both kingdoms. The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe Ⅴ of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy. To reach the goal of separating the crowns of France and Spain, the treaties required Felipe Ⅴ to relinquish all claims to the French throne, and the remaining French princes to relinquish all claims to the Spanish throne. The validity of the renunciation of Felipe Ⅴ, which are ancillary to the treaties, became a constitutional issue in France. However, it would have become a practical issue only after the branch senior to Felipe Ⅴ died out in 1883, at which time the French monarchy had been abolished and had lost most chances of a restoration. Still, the dispute over the renunciation continues among those interested in the French monarchy and its present-day representatives. This page presents the treaties of Utrecht in their historical context and analyzes their content.
- The Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714) (French, PDF/image format)
- Confirmation in Later Treaties (1718–83)
- TREATY OF UTRECHT, SECTION ⅩⅤ April 11, 1713 Daniel N. Paul – For centuries prior to 1713, wars raged almost constantly between France and England – over the eons many peace treaties were negotiated, signed, and broken at will. True to form, on July 13, 1713, they ratified another, the Treaty of Utrecht. Which, in time, like all previous peace deals between them, would prove to be no more than a respite from war. The war the treaty ended, like most European wars, had been caused by family squabbles among the pampered royal houses of Europe. Religion was also a prime factor, it's prominently mentioned in the preamble and in several sections. The treaty also included provisions that were extremely bad news for the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and Acadians. Section XII transferred to the British Crown the self-presumed French ownership of Acadia. This event marked the beginning of the end of French power in the Americas. http://www.danielnpaul.com/TreatyOfUtrecht-1713.html
- ARTICLE Ⅹ OF THE TREATY OF UTRECHT 13 JULY 1713 http://www.llanito.net – The Catholic King does hereby, for himself, his heirs and successors, yield to the Crown of Great Britain the full and entire propriety of the town and castle of Gibraltar, together with the port, fortifications, and forts thereunto belonging; and he gives up the said propriety to be held and enjoyed absolutely with all manner of right for ever, without any exception or impediment whatsoever. But that abuses and frauds may be avoided by importing any kind of goods, the Catholic King wills, and takes it to be understood, that the above-named propriety be yielded to Great Britain without any territorial jurisdiction and without any open communication by land with the country round about… http://www.llanito.net/utrecht.htm
1718 — Age of Liberty, aka: "Era of Liberty", "Period of Liberty", "Era of Freedom" (1718–1772) begins in Sweden.
- Sweden's Era of Liberty World History at KMLA – http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/scandinavia/swe17181772.html
- The era of freedom (1718–1772) Hachette Livre et/ou Hachette Multimédia – http://www.memo.fr/en/article.aspx?ID=PAY_SUE_007
- Gustav Ⅲ's coup d'état of 19 August 1772: The end of the "Age of Liberty" in Sweden Zbigniew Anusik – http://sarmatia-europaea.vot.pl/2012/12/30/024-gustav-iiis-coup-detat-of-19-august-1772/
- The Swedish Jewry 1718–1772 Judiska Församlingen – During the Swedish Period of Liberty succesive decrees are issued, all of them aimed at the Jews. In Sweden, as well as all over Europe, the great majority of people are hostile to Jews and opposed to all thoughts of allowing Jews to settle. http://www.judiskaforsamlingen.se/en/TheSwedishJewry/tabid/141/Default.aspx
- A Summary of the Many Swedish Wars Hans Högman – http://www.algonet.se/~hogman/slkrig_eng.htm
- Historical Dictionary of Sweden Scarecrow Press – http://chapters.scarecrowpress.com/08/108/0810853752ch1.pdf [pdf]
The Thirty Years' War (1733–1763) begins. [?]
1733–1763 — The Thirty Years' Wars consisted of several conflicts, wars and treaties in Europe and the Americas.
- The War of Polish Succession (1733–1739), ended with the "Treaty of Vienna 1738".
- The War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), North American theatre known as King George's War (1744–1748), ended with the "Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle" in 1745 .
- The Seven Years' War (1756–1763), North American theatre known as the French and Indian War, ended with the "Peace of Paris 1763" and the "Treaty of Hubertsburg".
November 18, 1738 — France and Austria sign final "Peace of Vienna" aka: "Treaty of Vienna 1738" (France signed a preliminary peace with Austria October, 3, 1735), ending the War of Polish Succession (1733–1739).
July 1741 — Swedish–Russian War of 1741–1743, aka: "Russo–Swedish War of 1741–1743", "War of the Hats", "Hats' Russian War", "Hats' War", "Little Discord (lilla ofreden)", begins when Sweden declares war on Russia in an effort to regain some of its previously lost territories during the Great Northern War; ended with a Swedish defeat and the Russian takeover of Finland.
Generation Shift: Republican Generation begins (1742–1766) [?]
The Republican Generation is the name given to that generation of Americans born from 1742 to 1766 by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations. They grew up as the precious object of adult protection during the French and Indian Wars, an era of rising crime and social disorder. They came of age highly regarded for their secular optimism and spirit of cooperation. As young adults, they achieved glory as soldiers in the American Revolutionary War, brilliance as scientists, order as civic planners, and epic success as state-crafters. Trusted by elders and aware of their own role in history, they led the campaign to ratify the United States Constitution and filled all the early cabinet posts. In midlife, they built canals and acquired territories, while their orderly Federalist and rational Republican leaders made America a "workshop of liberty". As elders, they chafed at passionate youths bent on repudiating much of what they had built.
The Republicans' typical grandparents were of the Enlightenment Generation. Their parents were of the Awakening Generation and Liberty Generation. Their children were of the Compromise Generation and Transcendental Generation and their typical grandchildren were of the Gilded Generation.
Altogether, about 2.1 million Americans were born from 1742 to 1766. 17 percent were immigrants and 17 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.
October 18, 1748 — "Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle", aka: "Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle", "Treaty of Aachen", negotiated largely by Britain and France, was signed ending the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) concluding with a status quo ante bellum.
1754–1763 — French and Indian War begins between the Colonies of British America and New France. In 1756 the war escalated from a regional affair into a world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War.
1756–1763 — Seven Years' War begins the first global war by most of the great powers of the time that affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. The protagonists were Britain, Prussia and Hanover against France, Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia and eventually Spain. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763. The war is alternatively named after combatants in the respective theaters:
- "Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1762)" was signed on May 5, 1762, ending the Seven Years' War between Prussia and Russia.
- Russia and Prussia concluded the Treaty of Saint Petersburg 05 May 1762 Yeltsin Presidential Library – April 24 (May 5), 1762 Chancellor M. I. Vorontsov and the Prussian envoy, Baron R. Goltz, signed the Treaty of St. Petersburg between the Russian Empire and Prussia, which stopped the war between the two powers. http://www.prlib.ru/en-us/History/Pages/Item.aspx?itemid=1032
- French and Indian War (1754–1763), aka: "French–Indian War", "War of the Conquest", "La guerre de la Conquête", involving Iroquois, French and British forces in North America; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763.
- Timeline of the "French and Indian" War (including events from around the world) Jonathan Carriel – http://www.jonathancarriel.com/timeline.htm
- Pomeranian War (1757–1762); in Sweden and Prussia; ended with the Treaty of Hamburg signed between Sweden and Prussia on May 22, 1762.
- Third Carnatic War (1757–1763) between French and British forces on the Indian subcontinent; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763.
- Third Silesian War (1756–1763) between Austria and Prussia over Silesia; ended with the Treaty of Hubertusburg signed February 15, 1763 at Hubertusburg by Prussia, Austria, and Saxony.
- Spanish–Portuguese War (1761–1763), aka: "Fantastic War", "Guerra Fantástica" "War of the Pacte de Famille"; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763; the status-quo between Spain and Portugal of before the war was restored.
- Anglo–Spanish War (1761–1763) between Britain and Spain; ended with the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763; Spain cedes Florida to Britain in exchange for return of Havana.
1763 — General-Landschulreglement (General Education Regulations), aka: "Landschulreglement", instituted by King Frederick Ⅱ of Prussia. The most ambitious educational reform of 18th century Europe introduced universal primary education into all Prussian villages to increase the power of the state by improving the productive skills of the people and sharpening the acumen of prospective officers and civil servants. Likewise, raison d'état was the rationale for the educational reforms imposed by Joseph Ⅱ in Austria in the 1780s. In his attempt to institute compulsory, secular education, he stressed an elementary and secondary training that would improve the productivity of the population and carefully limited higher education so as not to produce a flock of underemployed, meddlesome intellectuals.
February 10, 1763 — Treaty of Paris, aka: “Peace of Paris”, “Treaty of 1763”, signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. Britain did not fully exploit the worldwide successes it had enjoyed, as Pitt had resigned and the Earl of Bute was anxious for peace. Under the terms of the treaty Britain gained French Canada and all the territory France had claimed to the east of the Mississippi. France ceded some West Indian islands, including St Vincent and Tobago, but retained the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. In India, France retained its trading-stations but not its forts. Britain gained Senegal in West Africa and Florida from Spain; it also recovered Minorca in exchange for Belle Isle. Spain recovered Havana and Manila, and France’s claims in Louisiana west of the Mississippi were ceded to Spain in compensation for Florida, which became British until 1783. Britain was supreme at sea and, for the time being, dominated the east coast of North America. [?]
- Treaty of Paris (1763) (Transcript) Ohio History Central – http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Treaty_of_Paris_(1763)_(Transcript)
- Treaty of Paris, 1763 Site for Language Management in Canada (SLMC) – Official Languages and Bilingualism Institute (OLBI) – The 1763 Treaty of Paris officially ended the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) between France and Great Britain. Through this treaty, France ceded all of New France to Great Britain, with the exception of Louisiana, which had become a Spanish holding the previous year. Of its vast North American empire, France kept only the minuscule Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon islands south of Newfoundland as well as its fishing rights. The treaty’s linguistic significance is virtually nil, as language was not an issue at the time, even less so for French, which was considered the international language of treaties. The Treaty of Paris, which was officially written in French, gave Canadians the freedom to profess their Catholic religion (Section 4) “en tant que le permettent les lois de la Grande-Bretagne.” Implicitly, the treaty acknowledged the possibility of doing so in French. http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=leg_treaty_paris
February 15, 1763 — Treaty of Hubertusburg, “Frieden von Hubertusburg”, signed at Hubertusburg by Prussia, Austria, and Saxony. Together with the Treaty of Paris, it marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years' War. The treaty ended the continental conflict with no significant changes in prewar borders.
- BY THE KING, A PROCLAMATION. GEORGE R. October 7, 1763 – http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/PreConfederation/rp_1763.html
- Royal Proclamation of 1763 The Canadian Encyclopedia – Historica-Dominion – http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/royal-proclamation-of-1763
- The Indian Act: Historical Overview Feature by Jay Makarenko | Judicial System and Legal Issues | Jun 2, 2008 – http://www.mapleleafweb.com/features/the-indian-act-historical-overview
- Royal Proclamation, 1763 First Nations Studies Program – http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/royal-proclamation-1763.html
- ARCHIVED – The Proclamation of 1763 The Archivist – Publications – Library and Archives Canada – http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/publications/archivist-magazine/015002-2010-e.html
- Proclamation of 1763 ushistory.org by the Independence Hall Association – http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/proc63.htm
- Complete text of the Royal Proclamation, 1763 – Below are two slightly different versions of the Royal Proclamation, 1763. The one on the left was published in The London Gazette, number 10354 on October 7 or October 8, 1763. The one on the right was published in 1783 (or 1800) in Capitulations and Extracts of Treaties Relating to Canada; With His Majesty's Proclamation of 1763, establishing the Government of Quebec. For the most part, the differences between the two texts are merely editorial decisions regarding punctuation, capitalization, and typography. There are, however, a couple of typographical errors, as well as a number of small but interesting differences, which are highlighted below. – http://www.specific-claims-law.com/specific-claims-background/12-royal-proclamation-1763
Generation Shift: Compromise Generation begins (1767-1791) [?]
The Compromise Generation is that name given to the generation of Americans born from 1767 to 1791 by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations. As Henry Clay later recalled, this generation grew up "rocked in the cradle of the Revolution" as they watched brave adults struggle and triumph. Compliantly coming of age, they offered a new erudition, expertise, and romantic sensibility to their heroic elders' Age of Improvement. As young adults, they became what historian Matthew Cremson calls "the administrative founding fathers" and soldiered a Second War for Independence whose glory could never compare with the first. In midlife, they mentored populist movements, fretted over slavery and Indian removal, and presided over the Great Compromise that reflected their irresolution. As elders during the American Civil War, they feared that their "postheroic" mission had failed and that the United States might not outlive them.
The Compromisers' typical grandparents were of the Awakening Generation. Their parents were of the Liberty Generation and Republican Generation. Their children were of the Transcendental Generation and Gilded Generation; their typical grandchildren were of the Progressive Generation.
Altogether, about 4.2 million Americans were born from 1767 to 1791. 10 percent were immigrants and 15 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.
- Treaty of Paris (1783) signed between Great Britain and the United States of America ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784, formally ending the American Revolutionary War.
- Treaties of Versailles (1783) signed between Great Britain on one side and France and Spain on the other.
- The Treaty of Versailles (1783) and the Redrawing of the Canada-US Border Site for Language Management in Canada (SLMC) - Official Languages and Bilingualism Institute (OLBI) – http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=treaty_versailles
- The Treaty of Versailles, 1783 J.K. Hiller – Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage – http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/versailles.html
- Treaty with the Dutch Republic – Preliminary articles signed September 2, 1783 between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, final treaty signed on May 20, 1784, formerly ending the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.
French Revolution (1789–1799) begins.
Generation Shift: Transcendental Generation begins (1792-1821) [?]
The Transcendental Generation is the name given by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for that generation of Americans born from 1792 to 1821. The proud offspring of a secular new nation, this generation included the first children to be portraited (and named at birth) as individuals. Coming of age as evangelists, reformers, and campus rioters, they triggered the Second Great Awakening, a spiritual paroxysm across the nation. As crusading young adults, their divergent inner visions exacerbated sectional divisions. Entering midlife, graying abolitionists and Southrons spurned compromise and led the nation into the American Civil War, their zeal fired by the moral pronouncements of an aging clergy. The victors achieved emancipation but were blocked from imposing a peace as punishing as the old radicals would like to have wished. In elderhood, their feminists and poets (many with flowing beards) became unyielding expositors of truth and justice.
The Transcendentals' typical grandparents were of the Liberty Generation. Their parents were of the Republican Generation and Compromise Generation. Their children were of the Gilded Generation and Progressive Generation and their typical grandchildren were of the Missionary Generation.
Altogether, there were about 11 million Americans born from 1792 to 1821. 20 percent were immigrants and 13 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.
- Wall Street's First Collapse Thomas Fleming | American Heritage | Winter 2009 | Volume 58, Issue 6 – Speculators caused a stock market crash in 1792, forcing the federal government to bail out New York bankers— and the nation: Wall Street's first bubble swelled burst in the spring of 1792, exerting a profound effect on American politics and society. Nine years after the Treaty of Paris and the acknowledgement of the former colonies— independence, both Europe and America lay in turmoil. The French Revolution was showing its first symptoms of radical violence. In March an assassin's bullet felled Sweden's King Gustav Ⅲ, who had called for a crusade against France. In the United States, President Washington struggled to fight a war against British-backed Indians in the Midwest. Closer to home, a savage feud had exploded between his secretary of state, Thomas Jefferson, and his secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton. http://www.americanheritage.com/content/wall-street%E2%80%99s-first-collapse
- The U.S. Panic of 1792: Financial Crisis Management and the Lender of Last Resort David J. Cowen, Independent Scholar; Richard Sylla, New York University; Robert E. Wright, New York University; Draft of May 30, 2006 – Abstract: During the US financial panic of 1792, Wall Street's first crash, securities prices lost nearly a quarter of their value in two weeks. Nonetheless, the crisis, which came when the modern U.S. markets were less than two years old, is off the screens of most scholars, including even financial historians. In part that is because the crisis was managed incredibly well, mostly by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. Hence, there was almost no economic fallout for the US economy from the financial crisis. This makes the event worth studying. It is also worth studying because of the crisis management techniques Hamilton invented at the time, many of which later became theoretical and practical standards of central bank behavior in crises. Among other things, Hamilton invented and implemented "Bagehot's rules" for central-bank crisis management nine decades before Walter Bagehot wrote about them in Lombard Street. – http://www.helsinki.fi/iehc2006/papers1/Sylla.pdf [pdf]
1796 – "Panic of 1796–1797" begins with a series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets that led to broader commercial downturns in both Britain and the United States. In the U.S., problems first emerged when the Bubble of land speculation burst in 1796. The crisis deepened into a broader depression when the Bank of England suspended specie payments on February 25, 1797 under the Bank Restriction Act 1797. The Bank's directors feared insolvency when English account holders, who were nervous about a possible French invasion, began withdrawing their deposits. In combination with the unfolding collapse of the U.S. real estate market, the Bank of England's action had developing disflationary repercussions in the financial and commercial markets of the coastal United States and the Caribbean through the start of the 19th century.
By 1800, the crisis had resulted in the collapse of many prominent merchant firms in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and the imprisonment of many American debtors. The latter included the famed financier of the revolution Robert Morris and his partner James Greenleaf who were investors in a large tract of land in the Adirondacks of upstate New York. James Wilson was forced to spend the rest of his life literally fleeing from creditors until he died at a friend's home in Edenton, North Carolina. George Meade, the grandfather of the American Civil War general George Gordon Meade was ruined by investments in Western land deals and died in bankruptcy due to the panic. Henry Lee Ⅲ fortune was reduced by speculation with Robert Morris. The scandals associated with these and other incidents resulted in the U.S. Congress passing the Bankruptcy Act of 1800. The Bankruptcy Act of 1800 would later be repealed after its three-year duration expired in 1803.
- Certain Victims of an International Contagion: The Panic of 1797 and the Hard Times of the Late 1790s in Baltimore Richard S. Chew (2005) Journal of the Early Republic – http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_the_early_republic/v025/25.4chew.pdf [pdf]
- Price stability and financial stability: the historical record. David C.Wheelock; Michael D. Bordo, September 1, 1998, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. – http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-53436087.html
- A Brief History of Bankruptcy Law Offices of Amy E. Clark Kleinpeter (Archived from the original) – http://web.archive.org/web/20081119174310/http://www.amykleinpeter.com/history
- Republic of Debtors: Bankruptcy in the Age of American Independence Bruce H. Mann – http://eh.net/book_reviews/republic-debtors-bankruptcy-age-american-independence
French Revolution (1789–1799) ends.
Napoleonic Wars (1800–1815) begin.
1808 – Finnish War (1808–1809) fought between Sweden and Russia begins.
- #Harper, Austerity, Central Banks, Neos, War Hawks, 1812 and You Posted on September 7, 2012 by @opHarper – https://dumpharper.wordpress.com/2012/09/07/harper-austerity-central-banks-neos-war-hawks-1812-and-you/
- The Panic Of 1819: Reactions and Policies By Murray Newton Rothbard – http://books.google.ca/books?id=TmH6BLCkBj4C
Generation Shift: Gilded Generation begins (1822-1842) [?]
The Gilded Generation is the name coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for the generation of Americans born from 1822 to 1842. This generation included the Gold Rush Forty-niners who made circa-1850 San Francisco, California the most monogenerational city ever seen in America and the most anarchic, with no families or laws, just vigilante justice enforced by hangings. It includes most of the veterans of the American Civil War on both sides. It lended its name to the Gilded Age.
This generation lived a hardscrabble childhood around parents distracted by the Second Great Awakening's spiritual upheavals. They came of age amid rising national tempers, torrential immigration, commercialism, Know Nothing politics, and declining college enrollments. As young adults, many pursued fortunes in frontier boom towns or as fledgling "robber barons". Their Lincoln Shouters and Johnny Rebs rode eagerly into a Civil War that left them decimated, Confederates especially. Having learned to detest moral zealotry, their midlife Presidents and industrialists put their stock in Darwinian economics, Boss Tweed politics, Victorian prudery, and Carnegie's Law of Competition. As elders, they landed on the "industrial scrap heap" of an urbanizing economy that was harsh to most old people.
Altogether, there were about 17 million Americans born between 1822 and 1842. 28 percent were immigrants and 10 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.
The Gilded Generation's typical grandparents were of the Republican Generation. Their parents were of the Compromise Generation and Transcendental Generation. Their children were of the Progressive Generation and Missionary Generation and their typical grandchildren were of the Lost Generation.
1825 – Panic of 1825, aka: "Crisis of 1825", was a stock market crash that started in the Bank of England arising in part out of speculative investments in Latin America, including the imaginary country of Poyais. The crisis was felt most acutely in England where it precipitated the closing of six London banks and sixty country banks in England, but was also manifest in the markets of Europe, Latin America, and the United States. An infusion of gold reserves from the Banque de France saved the Bank of England from complete collapse.
The panic has been referred to as the first modern economic crisis not attributable to an external event, such as a war, and thus the start of modern economic cycles. The period of the Napoleonic Wars had been exceptionally profitable for all sectors of the British financial system, and the expansionist monetary actions taken during transition from wartime to peacetime economy initiated a surge of prosperity and speculative ventures. The stock market boom became a bubble and banks caught up in the euphoria made risky loans.
- The Financial Crisis of 1825 and the Restructuring of the British Financial System Larry Neal, St. Louis Federal Reserve Review, May/June 1998 – http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/98/05/9805ln.pdf [pdf]
- Commentary Michael D. Bordo, St. Louis Federal Reserve Review, May/June 1998 – http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/98/05/9805mb.pdf [pdf]
- Bagehot on the Financial Crises of 1825 and 2008 Richard G. Anderson, Vice President and Economist, St. Louis Federal Reserve, Posted on January 23, 2009 – "Bagehot's principal message is that the first task of a central bank during a financial panic is to end the panic." – http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/es/09/ES0907.pdf
- Panic of 1825 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1825
- Treaty of Constantinople – http://www.mfa.gr/greek/the_ministry/eny/1832_constantinople_treaty.doc [doc]
- Chapter 3: Residential Schools as Policy Legacy of Hope Foundation – http://www.wherearethechildren.ca/en/blackboard/page-7.html
Generation Shift: Progressive Generation begins (1843-1859) [?]
The Progressive Generation is a name coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for those Americans born from 1843 to 1859. The Progressives were caught in an odd warp of history, as the Civil War saeculum did not have a Hero (or Civic) archetype.
The Progressives spent their childhood shell-shocked by sectionalism and the American Civil War. Overawed by older "bloody-shirt" veterans, they came of age cautiously, pursuing refinement and expertise more than power. In the shadow of Reconstruction, they earned their reputation as well-behaved professors and lawyers, calibrators and specialists, civil servants and administrators. In midlife, their mild commitment to social melioration was whipsawed by the passions of youth. They matured into America's genteel yet juvenating Rough Riders in the era of Sigmund Freud's "talking cure" and late-Victorian sentimentality. After busting trusts and achieving progressive procedural reforms, their elders continued to urge tolerance on less conciliatory juniors.
Altogether, there were about 22 million Americans born from 1843 to 1859. 27 percent of them were immigrants and 9 percent were slaves at any point in their lives.
The Progressives' typical grandparents were of the Compromise Generation. Their parents were of the Transcendental Generation and Gilded Generation. Their children were of the Missionary Generation and Lost Generation; their typical grandchildren were of the G.I. Generation.
- The Schleswig-Holstein Rebellion by Jan Schlürmann, Historian, the University of Kiel – http://www.milhist.dk/trearskrigen/outbreak/outbreak_uk.htm
- "An Act for the Better Protection of the Lands and Property of Indians in Lower Canada" By this was established a commissioner to hold the Indians lands in trust for Indian people but with full power to do what he wished with that property.
- "An Act where the Better Protection of Indians in Upper Canada imposition, the property occupied or enjoyed by them from trespass and injury" By this no one could deal with Indian lands unless the Crown approved. The Act also gave exemption to Indians from taxation, judgement and seizure as well as prevent the sale of liquor to Indians. At this point in time the Government's main concern was to protect the Indians and their lands from abuse only until such time as they became "civil or assimilated".
May 8, 1852 – The international treaty that became known as the "London Protocol" was signed after the First War of Schleswig. It was a revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The second, actual London Protocol was recognized by the five major European powers, including Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom, as well as the Baltic Sea powers of Denmark and Sweden.
The Protocol affirmed the integrity of the Danish federation as a "European necessity and standing principle". Accordingly, the duchies of Schleswig (a Danish fief), and Holstein and Lauenburg (German fiefs) were joined by personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark. However, Frederick Ⅶ of Denmark was childless, so a change in dynasty was imminent and the lines of succession for the duchies and Denmark conflicted. That meant that, contrary to the Protocol, the new King of Denmark would not also be the new duke of Holstein and duke of Lauenburg. So for this purpose, the line of succession to the duchies was modified. Further, it was affirmed that the duchies were to remain as independent entities, and that Schleswig would have no greater constitutional affinity to Denmark than Holstein.
The major powers primarily wanted to ensure, by guaranteeing Denmark's territorial integrity, that the strategically significant port of Kiel would not fall into Prussian hands. Eleven years later, this treaty became the trigger for the German–Danish war of 1864. Prussia and Austria declared Denmark in violation of the Protocol, by the November Constitution, which Christian Ⅸ of Denmark signed on November 18, 1863. After an initial period of joint Austro–Prussian administration, Kiel was ultimately delivered to Prussia in 1867.
Generation Shift: Missionary Generation begins (1860-1882) [?]
The Missionary Generation is the designation given by Strauss and Howe in their book Generations (ISBN 0688119123) to that generation in the United States of America born from 1860 to 1882. They became the indulged home-and-hearth children of the post-Civil War era. They came of age as labor anarchists, campus rioters, and ambitious first graduates of black and women's colleges. In rising adulthood, they had an Awakening that had given birth to the Bible Belt, to Christian socialism, to Greenwich Village, to the Wobblies, and to renascent labor, temperance, and women's suffrage movements. Their young adults pursued rural populism, settlement house work, missionary crusades, and muckrake journalism. In midlife, their Decency brigades and fundamentalists imposed Prohibition, cracked down on immigration, and organized vice squads. In elderhood, they presided over the twin emergencies of the Great Depression and World War II. Their elder elite became the Wise Old Men who enacted a New Deal (and Social Security) for the benefit of youth, led a global war against fascism, and reaffirmed America's highest ideals during a transformative era in history.
In Strauss and Howe's Generations categorization, The Missionaries' typical grandparents were of the Transcendental Generation. Their parents were of the Gilded Generation and Progressive Generation. Their children were of the Lost Generation and G.I. Generation; their typical grandchildren were of the Silent Generation.
23% of the Missionaries were immigrants; 1% were slaves at any point in their lives.
- Text of the Treaty of Vienna (German with a French translation) – http://www.ambwien.um.dk/NR/rdonlyres/AB922586-4291-44C2-BFFA-0FF1424170A2/0/Fredstraktat1864.pdf
- In England, the expansionary stage of the Panic began in 1861 due to the growth and evolution of banking in England, the credit expansion initiated by the Credit Foncier in France played a key role. This expansion drove up the price of intermediate goods, construction and cotton-related industries and persisted at a rapid pace until panic broke out in 1866, due to a series of spectacular failures, the most famous of which was that of Overend Gurney in London. At this time, as occurred in 1847 and 1857, Peel's Bank Charter Act was temporarily suspended with the purpose of injecting liquidity into the economy and defending the Bank of England's gold reserves. France's first investment bank, the Crédit Mobiliaire, failed. The above gave rise to a depression which, as always, affected principally the sector of railroad construction, and unemployment spread mostly to capital-goods industries.
- Between 1859 and 1864, Spain engaged in substantial credit expansion which fostered widespread malinvestment, particularly in railroads. Beginning in 1864 it suffered a recession which reached its peak in 1866.
- In Italy, the end of the U.S. Civil War, brought the cancellation of war contracts, demobilization, and renewed competition from cheap U.S. cotton, sent the economic tremors that pushed Italy over the monetary precipice. A run on the bank ensued and on May 1, 1866, the government decreed the inconvertibility of bank notes – the "Corso Forzoso”. Before Corso Forzoso ("forced circulation"), Italy was on a gold and silver bimetallic standard, and holders of Italian bank notes could redeem them in gold and silver specie. As the government paid off its debts to the National Bank of Italy in gold, the bank was able to restore convertibility, and on April 7, 1881, the Corso Forzoso came to an end
- The panic of 1866 with its lessons on the currency act By Robert Baxter Esq., London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1866 – http://books.google.ca/books?id=YdM9AAAAcAAJ
- Panic of 1866 Mises Wiki: last modified 15 January 2011 – http://wiki.mises.org/wiki/Panic_of_1866
- Where it all began: lending of last resort and the Bank of England during the Overend-Gurney panic of 1866 Marc Flandreau and Stefano Ugolini Working Paper 2011/03 – Abstract: The National Monetary Commission was deeply concerned with importing best practice. One important focus was the connection between the money market and international trade. It was said that Britain's lead in the market for "acceptances" originating in international trade was the basis of its sterling predominance. In this article, we use a so-far unexplored source to document the portfolio of bills that was brought up to the Bank of England for discount and study the behavior of the Bank of England during the crisis of 1866 (the so-called Overend-Gurney panic) when the Bank began adopting lending of last resort policies (Bignon, Flandreau and Ugolini 2011). We compare 1865 (a "normal" year) to 1866. Important findings include: (a) the statistical predominance of foreign bills in the material brought to the Bank of England; (b) the correlation between the geography of bills and British trade patterns; (c) a marked contrast between normal times lending and crisis lending in that main financial intermediaries and the "shadow banking system" only showed up at the Bank's window during crises; (d) the importance of money market investors (bills brokers) as chief conduit of liquidity provision in crisis; (e) the importance of Bank of England's supervisory policies in ensuring lending-of-last-resort operations without enhancing moral hazard. An implication of our findings is that Bank of England's ability to control moral hazard for financial intermediaries involved in acceptances was another reason for the rise of sterling as an international currency. – http://www.norges-bank.no/templates/article____78145.aspx
The Great Binge (1870–1914) begins.
The Great Binge is a period in history when various drugs were developed and widely consumed, such as cocaine, opium and heroin, alongside strong alcoholic drinks, such as Absinthe, without prohibition and in quantities that nowadays are considered excessive.
- The American Railroads and the Panic of 1873 Jared Roy Endicott – http://jared.realizingresonance.com/2011/07/08/the-american-railroads-and-the-panic-of-1873
- "Panic, as a health officer, sweeping the garbage out of Wall Street." Frank Bellew, New York Daily Graphic, September 29, 1873 – http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6757
- History Of Crises Under The National Banking System (1910) Author: Allegheny Pa. Publisher: United Government Printing Office – Washington – http://archive.org/details/historyofcrisesu014857mbp
February 12, 1873 – U.S President Grant signs the Fourth Coinage Act (H. R. 2934) enacted by the United States Congress into law. Gold becomes the only metallic standard in the United States, hence putting the United States de facto on the gold standard and demonetizing silver. The Act had the immediate effect of depressing silver prices which Western mining interests, and others who wanted silver in circulation years later, labeled this measure the "Crime of '73".
The U.S. did not actually adopt the gold standard de jure until 1900, following a lengthy period of debate that was made famous by William Jennings Bryan's cross of gold speech at the 1896 Democratic convention. By this time, most major nations had moved to a gold standard. The only major nation that continued on the silver standard into the 20th century was China. China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard in 1935.
November 5, 1873 – Canada’s first Prime Minister, Conservative Sir John A. Macdonald, resigned due to allegations of bribery and corruption related to the Pacific Scandal when evidence and was revealed, by newspapers of the era, that Macdonald had received about $360,000 in election campaign funds for the 1872 federal election from railroad baron Sir Hugh Allan, who in turn for his help, was to be provided exclusive rights to build the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railroad.
- An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians. (April 12, 1876) Library and Archives Canada – http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/205/301/ic/cdc/aboriginaldocs/stat/w-1876a.htm
Generation Shift: Lost Generation begins (1883-1900) [?]
The term Lost Generation was coined by Gertrude Stein to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris in the 1920s and 1930s. Significant members included Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein herself.
More generally, the term is being used for the generation of young people coming of age in the United States during and shortly after World War I. For this reason, the generation is sometimes known as the World War I Generation or the Roaring 20s Generation. In Europe, they are most often known as the Generation of 1914, named after the year World War I began. In France, the country in which many expatriates settled, they are called the Génération au Feu.
William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations list this generation's birth years as 1883 to 1900. Their typical grandparents were the Gilded Generation; their parents were the Progressive Generation and Missionary Generation. Their children were the G.I. Generation and Silent Generation; their typical grandchildren were Baby boomers.
The "Lost Generation" were said to be disillusioned by the senseless slaughter of the First World War, cynical, disdainful of the Victorian notions of morality and propriety of their elders. Like most attempts to pigeon-hole entire generations, this over-generalization is true for some individuals of the generation and not true of others.
It was fairly common among members of this group to complain that American artistic culture lacked the breadth of European work – leading many members to spend large amounts of time in Europe – and/or that all topics worth treating in a literary work had already been covered. Nevertheless, this selfsame period saw an explosion in American literature and art, which is now often considered to include some of the greatest literary classics produced by American writers. This generation also produced the first flowering of jazz music, arguably the first distinctly American artform.
- U.S. Department of Justice: Antitrust Division – text of SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1-7 – http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/foia/divisionmanual/ch2.htm#a1
- Mr. Sherman's Hopes and Fears New York Times – 1890-10-01 – http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9B06E4D7103BE533A25752C0A9669D94619ED7CF&oref=slogin
- Sherman Anti-Trust Act, and Analysis – http://butnowyouknow.net/those-who-fail-to-learn-from-history/sherman-anti-trust-act-and-analysis/
- Our Documents – Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) – Approved July 2, 1890, The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was the first Federal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=51
“Why should we expect that Indians alone, of all people, should be quietly ready to give up all old customs and traditions and language, and adopt those of the aggressor upon their soil? The change which we expect the Indian to make, and make so quickly, is a far greater one than is required of any of those nations above enumerated [Germany, Sweden, France, Italy], who have left the shores of one civilized country to come to those of another. With the Indian, the change is a radical one — a change of dress, a change of dwelling, a change in mode of gaining livelihood, a social change, a religious change, an educational change, a totum in toto change. And this — not so much for his own benefit, as for our own convenience. We want the land. We cannot have Indian hunters annoying our farmers and settlers. If the Indian is to remain, we expect him to be a decent neighbour; and to be a decent neighbour, we expect him to accept our religion, our education, our laws, and our customs. We allow him no choice and we allow him no time.” ~ Attributed to E.F. Wilson. Principal of Shingwauk Residential School. May 1891. The Canadian Indian. Vol.1, no.8.
January 1893 – "Panic of 1893", aka: "Panic of '93", "Crisis of 1893", begins as a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893. Similar to the Panic of 1873, it was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing, resulting in a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and the railroad bubble, was a run on the gold supply. The Panic of '93 was the worst economic depression the United States had ever experienced at the time.
The Depression of 1893 David O. Whitten, Auburn University, EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. August 14, 2001 – The Depression of 1893 was one of the worst in American history with the unemployment rate exceeding ten percent for half a decade. This article describes economic developments in the decades leading up to the depression; the performance of the economy during the 1890s; domestic and international causes of the depression; and political and social responses to the depression.
The Depression of 1893 can be seen as a watershed event in American history. It was accompanied by violent strikes, the climax of the Populist and free silver political crusades, the creation of a new political balance, the continuing transformation of the country's economy, major changes in national policy, and far-reaching social and intellectual developments. Business contraction shaped the decade that ushered out the nineteenth century. http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/whitten.panic.1893
Generation Shift: G.I. Generation, aka: The Greatest Generation, begins (1900-1924) [?]
The G.I. Generation is the generation of Americans that fought and won World War Ⅱ, later to become the Establishment and the parents who had a generation gap with their Boomer children. Their Depression was The Great One, their war was The Big One, their prosperity was the legendary Happy Days. The generation is also known as the Greatest Generation (after Tom Brokaw's book), the World War Ⅱ Generation, the Veteran Generation, the Depression Generation, Builders, and the Traditional Generation or Traditionalists. The name "G.I. Generation" was coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe for their book Generations, who put its birthdates from 1901 to 1924. The term G.I. could stand for "government issue" or "general issue" and this generation stands for both.
The G.I. Generation developed a special and "good kid" reputation as the beneficiaries of new playgrounds, scouting clubs, vitamins, and child-labor restrictions. They came of age with the sharpest rise in schooling ever recorded. As young adults, their uniformed corps patiently endured depression and heroically conquered foreign enemies. In a midlife subsidized by the G.I. Bill, they built gleaming suburbs, invented miracle vaccines, plugged "missile gaps," and launched moon rockets. Their unprecedented grip on the Presidency began with a New Frontier, a Great Society, and Model Cities, but wore down through Vietnam, Watergate, deficits, and problems with "the vision thing." As "senior citizens," they moved into busy Sun City communities safeguarded their own "entitlements," but have had little influence over culture and values.
Their typical grandparents were of the Progressive Generation. Their parents were of the Missionary Generation and Lost Generation. Their children were of the Silent Generation and Baby Boomers. Their typical grandchildren were of Generation X.
June 30, 1906 – U.S. Congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act, which requires truth in labeling and bans adulterated food products and poisonous medicines.
- Legislation: The Food and Drugs Act of 1906 was the first of more than 200 laws that constitute one of the world's most comprehensive and effective networks of public health and consumer protections. Here are a few of the congressional milestones:
- The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 was passed after a legally marketed toxic elixir killed 107 people, including many children. The FD&C Act completely overhauled the public health system. Among other provisions, the law authorized the FDA to demand evidence of safety for new drugs, issue standards for food, and conduct factory inspections.
- The Kefauver-Harris Amendments of 1962, which were inspired by the thalidomide tragedy in Europe (and the FDA's vigilance that prevented the drug's marketing in the United States), strengthened the rules for drug safety and required manufacturers to prove their drugs' effectiveness.
- The Medical Device Amendments of 1976 followed a U.S. Senate finding that faulty medical devices had caused 10,000 injuries, including 731 deaths. The law applied safety and effectiveness safeguards to new devices.
- Today, the FDA regulates $1 trillion worth of products a year. It ensures the safety of all food except for meat, poultry and some egg products; ensures the safety and effectiveness of all drugs, biological products (including blood, vaccines and tissues for transplantation), medical devices, and animal drugs and feed; and makes sure that cosmetics and medical and consumer products that emit radiation do no harm. http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/wileyact.htm
- Full text of The story of a national crime : being an appeal for justice to the Indians of Canada ; the wards of the nation, our allies in the Revolutionary War, our brothers-in-arms in the Great War – http://www.archive.org/stream/storyofnationalc00brycuoft/storyofnationalc00brycuoft_djvu.txt
- THE STORY OF A NATIONAL CRIME: BEING AN APPEAL FOR JUSTICE TO THE INDIANS OF CANADA The Wards of the Nation : Our Allies in the Revolutionary War : Our Brothers-in-Arms in the Great War. BY P. H. BRYCE, M,A., M.D. Published by James Hope & Sons, Limited OTTAWA. CANADA 1922 – http://www.wherearethechildren.ca/en/documents/bryce_extract.pdf [pdf]
Oct. 9, 1907 – Panic of 1907 aka: 1907 Bankers' Panic, Knickerbocker Crisis, begins with a miscalculated and failed attempt to manipulate the stock prices of the United Copper Company that resulted in the business' bankruptcy. United Copper's collapse sent owners of its stock (holders included institutions as diverse as the brokerage house Gross & Kleeberg and the State Savings Bank of Butte Montana) into insolvency. Furthermore, banks associated with the perpetrators of United Copper's attempted cornering, F. Augustus Heinze and Charles W. Morse, who together served on the boards of six national banks, ten state banks, five trust companies, and four insurance firms, suffered massive runs on their deposits throughout October 1907.
- The Panic of 1907: A Human-Caused Crisis, or a Thunderstorm? A Comparison Between The New York Times and Wall Street Journal's Coverage of the United States First Modern Panic By Bonnie Kavoussi – http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~histecon/crisis-next/1907/docs/Kavoussi-Panic_of_1907.pdf [pdf]
- 1907: the Bankers Panic Bubbles, Panics and Crashes - Historical Collections - Harvard Business School – http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/crises/1907.html
- Panic of 1907: J.P. Morgan Saves the Day – http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h952.html
- The Moneychangers by Upton Sinclair – Disturbing novel about the Wall Street scare of 1907 portrays the tactics of greedy capitalists who organize the fall of a rival trust company, creating a crash in the stock market crash and a run on American banks. Ultimately thousands of jobs are lost, throwing the world into financial chaos. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/5829
- The Financial Panic of 1907: Running from History By Abigail Tucker Smithsonian.com, October 10, 2008 – Just over 100 years ago, Americans panicked as brokerage firms went bankrupt and investors pulled their money out of banks, instigating a nation-wide crisis. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/1907_Panic.html
- Here's How It's Done, Hank: A Parable From a Crisis of a Century Ago. By Jean Strouse Sunday, September 28, 2008 – http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/26/AR2008092602837.html
- Banking Reform in a Hostile Climate: Paul M. Warburg and the National Citizens' League Lucy D. Chen April 2010 – http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~histecon/crisis-next/1907/docs/Chen-Warburg_Final_Paper.pdf [pdf]
- Stock markets should fear comparison to 1907 By Jeff Greenblatt, March 14, 2011 – http://www.futuresmag.com/2011/03/14/stock-markets-should-fear-comparison-to-1907
- Historical collection of documents including data publications, hearings, and analyses of the Panic of 1907 Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/topics/?tid=9
- Lessons from the Panic of 1907 [pdf] – http://www.frbatlanta.org/filelegacydocs/ern390_tallman.pdf [pdf]
- Currency Problem and the Present Financial Situation – A series of addresses studying the Crisis of 1907, delivered at Columbia University over the years 1907-1908. Digitized by Microsoft Corporation. Includes:
- Complete Publication – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_comptext.pdf [pdf] (18.1M)
- Title Page and Table of Contents – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_intro.pdf [pdf] (186.2K)
- The crisis of 1907 in the light of history Edwin R.A. Seligman – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_introduction.pdf [pdf] (786.7K)
- The modern bank / Frank A. Vanderlip – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_modbank.pdf [pdf] (679.1K)
- The stock exchange and the money market Thomas F. Woodlock – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_stockexch.pdf [pdf] (844.2K)
- Government currency vs. bank currency A. Barton Hepburn – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_govtcurr.pdf [pdf] (700.9K)
- Gold movements and foreign exchanges Albert Strauss – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_gold.pdf [pdf] (1.1M)
- The New York clearing house William A. Nash – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_newyork.pdf [pdf] (162.3K)
- Clearing houses and the currency James G. Cannon – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_clearinghouse.pdf [pdf] (883.4K)
- American and European banking methods and bank legislation compared Paul M. Warburg – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_ameurobanking.pdf [pdf] (1.3M)
- The modern corporation George W. Perkins – http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/currencyprob/1908currencyproblem_modcorp.pdf [pdf] (644.8K)
Availability: 1908 http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publication/?pid=106
1910–1911 – Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911). The Supreme Court of the United States found the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and thirty-three other corporations, John D. Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, and five other individual defendants guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anti-competitive actions. The conspiracy was alleged to have been formed in or about the year 1870 by three of the individual defendants, viz.: John D. Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, and Henry M. Flagler. The detailed arguments concerning the alleged conspiracy were arranged with reference to three periods, the first from 1870 to 1882, the second from 1882 to 1899, and the third from 1899 to the time of the filing of the bill. Standard Oil Company conspired to restrain the trade and commerce in petroleum, and to monopolize the commerce in petroleum, in violation of the Sherman Act. Standard Oil was split into many smaller companies in several geographically separate and eventually competing firms. Several individuals, including John D. Rockefeller, were fined. STANDARD OIL CO. OF NEW JERSEY v. U S, 221 U.S. 1 (1910)
- The Dismantling of The Standard Oil Trust The Linux Information Project Created May 21, 2004. Updated October 12, 2006 – http://www.linfo.org/standardoil.html
- Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States – 221 U.S. 1 (1911) Legal Information Institute – Cornell Law School – http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0221_0001_ZO.html
- Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911) – FindLaw, a Thomson Reuters business http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=221&page=1
- Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States – 221 U.S. 1 (1911) Justia.com US Supreme Court Center – http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/221/1/case.html
221 U.S. 1
STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY et al., Appts.,
No. 398. Argued March 14, 15, and 16, 1910
Ordered for reargument April 11, 1910.
Reargued January 12, 13, 16, and 111, 1911.
May 16, 1912 – February 26, 1913 – Pujo Committee "Money Trust" Wall Street Banking Cartel Investigation, aka: "Money Trust Investigation: Investigation of Financial and Monetary Conditions in the United States Under House Resolutions Nos. 429 and 504 : 1912-1913", was a special subcommittee convened by the Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee, Arsene P. Pujo. Its purpose was to investigate the "money trust," a small group of Wall Street bankers that exerted powerful control over the nation's finances. The committee's majority report concluded that a group of financial leaders had abused the public trust to consolidate control over many industries. The Pujo Committee report created a climate of public opinion that lead to the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914.
The hearings were conducted between May 16, 1912 and February 26, 1913. The transcript of the hearings was published in three volumes. It is presented in the original 29 parts with the index, a table of interlocking directorates of 18 financial institutions, and the majority/minority report of the committee. http://publicintelligence.net/pujo-committee-money-trust-wall-street-banking-cartel-investigation-1912-1913/
The Great Binge (1870–1914) ends.
World War Ⅰ (1914-1919) begins.
1918 – British and French request Allied powers, including the United States, to began a military intervention in the Russian Civil War.
World War Ⅰ (1914-1919) ends.
June 28, 1919 – Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany signed at Versailles (France) and came into force on January 10, 1920. The treaty's terms were extremely harsh, as the negotiators at Versailles later pointed out. The United States is a signatory but it was rejected by the U.S. Senate, which leads to the Knox-Porter joint resolution being passed by Congress on July 1, 1919. President Harding signed the resolution at the Frelinghuysen estate the next day. The U.S. and Germany sign a separate peace agreement, U.S. Treaty of Peace with Germany aka: Treaty of Berlin, on August 25, 1921. The U.S. also signed separate treaties with Austria on August 24, 1919 and Hungary on August 29, 1919. Russia was excluded from the treaty because it had negotiated a separate peace with Germany in 1918. China did not sign the treaty, declared the end of its war against Germany in September 1919 and signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.
- Treaty of Versailles Wikisource – http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles
- The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes – Project Gutenberg eBook – http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15776/15776-h/15776-h.htm
- US Peace Treaty with Germany – http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/US_Peace_Treaty_with_Germany
- Primary Documents – U.S. Peace Treaty with Austria, 24 August 1921 – http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uspeacetreaty_austria.htm
- Primary Documents – U.S. Peace Treaty with Germany, 25 August 1921 – http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uspeacetreaty_germany.htm
- Primary Documents – U.S. Peace Treaty with Hungary, 29 August 1921 – http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uspeacetreaty_hungary.htm
August 10, 1920 – Post World War Ⅰ Treaty of Sèvres divides Ottoman Empire.
- Treaty of Peace Between The Allied & Associated Powers and Turkey Signed at Sèvres August 10, 1920 (Note: Includes Peace Treaty of Versailles 28 June, 1919.) – http://groong.usc.edu/treaties/sevres.html
- The Peace Treaty of Sèvres – http://www.hri.org/docs/sevres/
- Text of the Peace Treaty of Sèvres 10 August, 1920 (never adopted, superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne) – http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Peace_Treaty_of_S%C3%A8vres
Generation Shift: "Silent Generation" begins (1925-1945) [?]
Members of the Mature/WWⅡ Generation (born before 1946) are 67 years or older. Although most members have retired from the labor force, they comprise a wealth of valuable knowledge and experience. Many believe this generation views work as an obligation: they respect authority, take rational approaches, and produce quality work.
World War Ⅱ (1939-1945), aka: Second World War, WWⅡ, WW2, begins.
June 13, 1942 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt creates the "Office of Strategic Services (OSS)" and makes William (Wild Bill) Donovan director; during World War Ⅱ, roughly 1,500 OSS agents sneak into occupied Europe and Asia before Allied armies, organizing resistance groups. The office is dissolved after the war.
World War Ⅱ (1939-1945) ends.
Generation Shift: Baby Boomers begin (1946–1964) [?]
Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) are approximately between the ages of 47 and 66. The older members have begun to retire from the labor force. This generation occupies most of the senior-level management roles. They are often stereotyped as extremely focused on work, and they possess a strong work ethic and desire recognition for their efforts. Experienced Space Exploration, First Modern "counterculture".
November 29, 1947 – The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine divides Palestine into two states.
- UN Resolution 181 - The Partition Plan - Myths and Facts [pdf] – http://www.mythsandfacts.org/conflict/10/resolution-181.pdf [pdf]
- Mid East Maps Map of UN Partition Plan for Palestine - 1947 – Mid East Maps Map of UN Partition Plan for Palestine – 1947
May 15, 1948 – End of the British Mandate and British evacuate Palestine, Zionist leaders proclaim the birth the State of Israel.
- The United Nations Partition Plan – Middle East Research and Information Project – http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/un-partition-plan-pal-isr.html
- Narratives of 1948 – Why the UN Partition Plan Wasn't Implemented – http://www.pij.org/details.php?id=104
- Modern History of Israel: The Partition Plan – http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/partition_plan.html
March 1949 – CIA Syrian coup d'état; first military coup in the history of Syria.
- 1949-1958, Syria: Early Experiments in Cover Action Douglas Little, Professor, Department of History, Clark University – http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/issue51/articles/51_12-13.pdf [pdf]
August 19, 1953 – CIA "Operation Ajax" Iran coup d'état aka: 28 Mordad coup (Iran), Operation Boot (UK), TPAJAX Project (US). The agency's role soon becomes widely known; orchestrated overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran, against Premier Mohammed Mossadegh, by intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States, restoring Shah Reza Pahlavi to the throne.
- Special Report: Secret History of the CIA in Iran. New York Times 2000 – http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html
- Blowback: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat#Blowback
January 17, 1961 – Assasination of Patrice Lumumba, the first legally elected prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
- Patrice Lumumba: the most important assassination of the 20th century – http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/jan/17/patrice-lumumba-50th-anniversary-assassination
- The Assassination of Patrice Lumumba – January 17, 1961 – http://www.dibussi.com/2007/01/the_assassinati.html
- Patrice Lumumba, The Sacrifice of a True African Leader – http://www.mathaba.net/news/?x=630779
- CIA hand seen in Patrice Lumumba death – http://www.nation.co.ke/News/CIA-hand-seen-in-Patrice-Lumumba-death-/-/1056/1315348/-/11ndi2az/-/index.html
- Belgium to probe murder of African hero Lumumba December 13, 2012 – http://www.nation.co.ke/News/africa/Belgium-to-probe-murder-of-African-hero-Lumumba/-/1066/1642888/-/2rnip3/-/index.html
November 1, 1963 – CIA backed coup d'état to overthrow government of South Vietnam.
- The Pentagon Papers Gravel Edition Volume 2 Chapter 4, "The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, May-November, 1963," pp. 201-276. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971) – https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon2/pent6.htm
Generation Shift: Generation X begins (1965-1979) [?]
Generation X (born between 1966 and 1980) is approximately between the ages of 32 and 46. The oldest members could be entering senior-level management roles while the younger members entering/approaching mid-career and senior-level supervisory roles.8 Many members of Generation X embrace diversity  and entrepreneurship . Experienced: Vietnam War/Cold War, Rise of Mass Media/end of the Cold War, Rise of the Information Age/Internet/War on Terror/Iraq War/Rising Gas and Food Prices; 1965-1984 "Hip-Hop" generation.
- 1968 Humphrey vs. Nixon October Surprise – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_surprise#1968_Humphrey_vs._Nixon
- The October Surprise Mysteries – http://consortiumnews.com/2012/10/22/the-october-surprise-mysteries/
- Two and a Half October Surprises — The Last Days of the 1968 Election – http://www.americanhistoryusa.com/two-and-a-half-october-surprises-the-last-days-of-the-1968-election/
July 24. 1970 – National Security Study Memorandum 97 (NSSM 97) – issued in President Nixon's name by National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger regarding Chile.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
WASHINGTON D.C 20506
July 24. 1970
National Security Study Memorandum 97
The Secretary of State
The Secretary of Defense
The Director of Central Intelligence
The Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
The President has asked for an urgent review of U.S. policy and strategy in the event of an Allende victory in the Chilean Presidential elections.
The study should cover the following points:
- What policies and goals is an Allende administration likely to espouse? What probable alternative courses are developments in Chile likely to take under an Allende government?
- What is the nature and degree of threat to U.S. interests of these alternatives, both in inunediate terms and in terms of impact on our long-range goals and position?
- What options are open to the U. S. to meet these problems?
The paper should be prepared by an ad hoc group comprising representatives of the addresses and the NSC staff and should be chaired by the representative of the Department of State. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, knowledge of the paper and participation in its preparation should be kept on a strict need-to-know basis. Additional participation as m ay be required should be specifically approved by the chairman of the ad hoc group under these guidelines.
The paper should be submitted to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs no later than August 18, 1970.
Henry A. Kissinger
February 27, 1972 – SINO-US JOINT COMMUNIQUE: President Richard Nixon of the United States of America visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People's Republic of China from February 21 to February 28, 1972. Accompanying the President were Mrs. Nixon, U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers, Assistant to the President Dr. Henry Kissinger, and other American officials.
President Nixon met with Chairman Mao Tse-tung of the Communist Party of China on February 21. The two leaders had a serious and frank exchange of views on Sino-U.S. relations and world affairs.
During the visit, extensive, earnest and frank discussions were held between President Nixon and Premier Chou En-lai on the normalization of relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China, as well as on other matters of interest to both sides. In addition, Secretary of State William Rogers and Foreign Minister Chi Peng-fei held talks in the same spirit.
At the conclusion of his trip, the U.S. and Chinese Governments issued the "Shanghai Communiqué", a statement of their foreign policy views. (For the complete text of the Shanghai Communiqué, see the Department of State Bulletin, March 20, 1972.)
In the Communiqué, both nations pledged to work toward the full normalization of diplomatic relations. The United States acknowledged the Chinese position that all Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait maintain that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China. The statement enabled the United States and China to temporarily set aside the "crucial question obstructing the normalization of relations"–Taiwan–and to open trade and other contacts.
October 1972 – President Nixon and Kissinger's "Peace is at hand" statement assures President Nixon went on to defeat Democratic Presidential Nominee George McGovern in an historic landslide victory on November 7 1972.
January 1973 "1973–1974 Stock Market Crash" begins one of the worst stock market downturns in modern history, as a severe bear market, that lasted until December 1974, affecting all of the major stock markets in the world. The crash came after the collapse of the Bretton Woods system over the previous two years, with the associated 'Nixon Shock' and United States unilaterally terminated the convertibility of the dollar to gold. The U.S. Dollar devaluation under the Smithsonian Agreement was a major event in the 1970s recession that was compounded by the outbreak of the "1973 Oil Crisis" in October.
In the US, the unemployment skyrocketed to 9% by mid–1975 — the highest rate since the Great Depression. The stock market as measured by the Dow Jones index decreased 25% between 1969 and 1971 and then lost another 20% by mid-1975. The Hong Kong Hang Seng Index also fell from 1,800 in early 1973 to close to 300. In the United Kingdom, the "Secondary Banking Crisis of 1973–75" began as a dramatic crash in property prices in Great Britain caused dozens of small, "secondary", lending banks to be threatened with bankruptcy forcing the Bank of England to bail out a number of lenders, inflation continued to rise up to 25% in 1975.
- Comparing Bear Markets – 1973 and 2000 E. Philip Davis, Brunel University, National Institute Economic Review, January 2003 vol. 183 no. 1 78-89 – http://ner.sagepub.com/content/183/1/78.abstract
It was compounded by the outbreak of the 1973 oil crisis in October of that year. It was a major event in the 1970s recession.
May 14, 1973 – Nixon's October Surprise; Former Vietnam War national security adviser, Walt W. Rostow, typed a three-page "memorandum for the record" summarizing a secret file that his former boss, President Lyndon Johnson, had amassed on what may have been Richard Nixon's dirtiest tricks headed by Kissinger, the sabotaging of Vietnam peace talks to win the 1968 election.
- LBJ's 'X' File on Nixon's 'Treason' – http://consortiumnews.com/2012/03/03/lbjs-x-file-on-nixons-treason/
- 1968 Humphrey vs. Nixon October Surprise – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_surprise#1968_Humphrey_vs._Nixon
September 11, 1973 – General Augusto Pinochet and the Chilean military stage a coup d'état that deposes Chile's socialist President Salvador Allende who, in early September, floated the idea of resolving the ongoing constitutional crisis in Chile with a plebiscite scheduled for September 11, 1973. Allende gave his farewell speech, with gunfire and explosions in the background, to Chileans on live radio just prior to the capture of the Presidential Palace. Shortly afterwards, the coup plotters announced that Allende committed suicide but later evidence would prove he was assassinated. The CIA, which had organized a failed coup in 1970, encouraged Pinochet but denies direct involvement to this day.
- Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup By Peter Kornbluh National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 8 – Washington, D.C. - September 11, 1998 marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet. The violent overthrow of the democratically-elected Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende changed the course of the country that Chilean poet Pablo Neruda described as "a long petal of sea, wine and snow"; because of CIA covert intervention in Chile, and the repressive character of General Pinochet's rule, the coup became the most notorious military takeover in the annals of Latin American history.
Revelations that President Richard Nixon had ordered the CIA to "make the economy scream" in Chile to "prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him," prompted a major scandal in the mid-1970s, and a major investigation by the U.S. Senate. Since the coup, however, few U.S. documents relating to Chile have been actually declassified- -until recently. Through Freedom of Information Act requests, and other avenues of declassification, the National Security Archive has been able to compile a collection of declassified records that shed light on events in Chile between 1970 and 1976. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/nsaebb8i.htm
October 6, 1973 – Fourth Arab-Israeli War, aka: "October War", "Yom Kippur War", "Ramadan War", begins.
- The October War and U.S. Policy William Burr, National Security Archive, October 7, 2003 – Kissinger Gave Green Light for Israeli Offensive Violating 1973 Cease-Fire; U.S.-Israeli Decisions Touched Off Crisis Leading to 1973 U.S. Nuclear Alert. New Documents Correct Previous Accounts in Kissinger Books. Washington, D.C., 7 October 2003 – During the 1973 October War, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger secretly gave Israeli authorities a green light to breach a cease-fire agreement arranged with the Soviet Union, according to new documents published by the National Security Archive today on the war's 30th anniversary. Declassified documents detail Kissinger's efforts to buy time for Israeli military advances despite the impending cease-fire deadline. This episode is not discussed in Kissinger's new book, Crisis, and was downplayed in his memoirs.
- Press Release – http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/press.htm
- NSA Electronic Briefing Book – http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/index.htm
September 8, 1974 – U.S President Ford issues "Proclamation 4311" pardoning Richard Nixon of any and all crimes committed between January 20, 1969 and August 9, 1974, including Watergate.
It is believed that a trial of Richard Nixon, if it became necessary, could not fairly begin until a year or more has elapsed. In the meantime, the tranquility to which this nation has been restored by the events of recent weeks could be irreparably lost by the prospects of bringing to trial a former President of the United States. The prospects of such trial will cause prolonged and divisive debate over the propriety of exposing to further punishment and degradation a man who has already paid the unprecedented penalty of relinquishing the highest elective office of the United States.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States, pursuant to the pardon power conferred upon me by Article Ⅱ, Section 2, of the Constitution, have granted and by these presents do grant a full, free, and absolute pardon unto Richard Nixon for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from January 20, 1969 through August 9, 1974.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighth day of September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-four, and of the Indepdendence of the United States the one hundred and ninety-ninth.
1975 – Church Commission Report into the illegal activities revealed by the Watergate affair also uncovers that covert United States involvement in Chile in the decade between 1963 and 1973 was extensive and continuous.
The Church Committee is the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D–ID) in 1975. A precursor to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, the committee investigated intelligence gathering for illegality by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) after certain activities had been revealed by the Watergate affair.
By the early years of the 1970s, the unpopularity of the Vietnam War and the unfolding Watergate scandal brought the era of minimal oversight to an abrupt halt [according to whom?]. The US Congress was determined to rein in the Nixon administration and to ascertain the extent to which the nation's intelligence agencies had been involved in questionable, if not outright illegal, activities.
A series of troubling revelations started to appear in the press concerning intelligence activities. First came the revelations of Christopher Pyle in January 1970 of the U.S. Army's spying on the civilian population and Sam Ervin's Senate investigations that resulted. The dam broke on 22 December 1974, when The New York Times published a lengthy article by Seymour Hersh detailing operations engaged in by the Central Intelligence Agency over the years that had been dubbed the "family jewels". Covert action programs involving assassination attempts against foreign leaders and covert attempts to subvert foreign governments were reported for the first time. In addition, the article discussed efforts by intelligence agencies to collect information on the political activities of US citizens.
These revelations convinced many Senators and Representatives that the Congress itself had been too lax, trusting, and naive in carrying out its oversight responsibilities.
In 1975 and 1976, the Church Committee published fourteen reports on the formation of U.S. intelligence agencies, their operations, and the alleged abuses of law and of power that they had committed, together with recommendations for reform, some of which were put in place.
Among the matters investigated were attempts to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of the Congo, Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, the Diem brothers of Vietnam, Gen. René Schneider of Chile and President John F. Kennedy's plan to use the Mafia to kill Fidel Castro of Cuba.
Under recommendations and pressure by this committee, President Gerald Ford issued Executive Order 11905 (ultimately replaced in 1981 by President Reagan's Executive Order 12333) to ban U.S. sanctioned assassinations of foreign leaders.
Together, the Church Committee's reports have been said to constitute the most extensive review of intelligence activities ever made available to the public. Much of the contents were classified, but more than 50,000 pages have since been declassified under the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.
Continue researching: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_Commission
- The CIA's Family Jewels Agency Violated Charter for 25 Years, Wiretapped Journalists and Dissidents CIA Announces Declassification of 1970s "Skeletons" File, Archive Posts Justice Department Summary from 1975, With White House Memcons on Damage Control National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 222 Edited by Thomas Blanton Posted – June 21, 2007 Updated – June 26, 2007, 1 p.m. – http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB222/ (Update – Full Report Now Available and Full Text Searchable)
November 1975 – President Gerald Ford:
- appoints Donald H. Rumsfeld his Secretary of Defense;
- appoints Dick Cheney his Chief of Staff.
January 1, 1979 – JOINT COMMUNIQUE ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (note: The Communique was released on December 15, 1978, in Washington and Peking.)
The United States of America and the People's Republic of China have agreed to recognize each other and to establish diplomatic relations as of January 1, 1979.
The United States of America recognizes the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China. Within this context, the people of the United States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan.
The United States of America and the People's Republic of China reaffirm the principles agreed on by the two sides in the Shanghai Communique and emphasize once again that:
- –Both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict.
- –Neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region or in any other region of the world and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony.
- –Neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other states.
- –The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China.
- –Both believe that normalization of Sino-American relations is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also contributes to the cause of peace in Asia and the world.
The United States of America and the People's Republic of China will exchange Ambassadors and establish Embassies on March 1, 1979.
1979-1989 – Civil War in Afghanistan aka: Soviet War in Afghanistan, Charlie Wilson's War. Part of the Cold War, it was fought between Soviet-led Afghan forces against multi-national insurgent groups called the mujahideens. The insurgents received military training in neighboring Pakistan and China plus billions of dollars from the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and other countries. The early foundations of al-Qaida were built in part on relationships and weaponry that came from the billions of dollars in U.S. support for the Afghan mujahadin during the war to expel Soviet forces from Afghanistan.
- Operation Cyclone: CIA provided assistance Afghan mujahideen militants and fundamentalist insurgents through the Pakistani secret services, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). One of the CIA's longest and most expensive covert operations. Saudi Arabia, Britain's MI6 and SAS, Egypt, Iran, and the People's Republic of China ran similar programs.
Generation Shift: Generation Y, aka: Millennials, begins (1980-2000) [?]
Generation Y or the Millennials (born between 1981 and 2000) are approximately between the ages of 12 and 31. The older members are in the labor force while the younger members are still completing their formal education. This generation is known for being optimistic and goal-oriented: they are known for enjoying collaboration and multitasking, are comfortable embracing emerging technologies, and appreciate meaningful work.
October 1980 – 1980 Carter vs. Reagan October Surprise
- 1980 Carter vs. Reagan – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_surprise#1980_Carter_vs._Reagan
- New 'October Surprise' Series – http://consortiumnews.com/the-new-october-surprise-series/
November 1986 – Iran–Contra affair, aka: Irangate, Contragate or the Iran-Contra scandal; U.S. political scandal during the Reagan administration where senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran which the subject of an arms embargo. U.S. officials hoped that the arms sales would secure the release of hostages and allow U.S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras. Under the Boland Amendment, further funding of the Contras by the government had been prohibited by Congress.
- The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On. The National Security Archive George Washington University, 2006-11-24 – http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB210/
- Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs Brown University – http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/timeline-iran
August 6, 1990 – United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 661 acting under Chapter Ⅶ of the Charter of the United Nations, imposing comprehensive sanctions on Iraq.
- Effects of Iraq Sanctions – http://www.globalissues.org/article/105/effects-of-sanctions
- Iraq – Truth and Lies in Baghdad . The Debate Over U.N. Sanctions – http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/iraq/sanctions.html
- Sanctions Against Iraq – http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/sanction/indexone.htm
- Embargoes and sanctions on Iraq – Detailed guidance – GOV.UK – https://www.gov.uk/arms-embargo-on-iraq
- Canadian Economic Sanctions > Iraq Overview – http://www.international.gc.ca/sanctions/iraq.aspx?lang=eng
- U.S. Iraq Related Sanctions – http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/iraq.aspx
- Australian Iraq Related Sanctions – http://www.dfat.gov.au/un/unsc_sanctions/iraq.html
- A Canadian Policy Response to the Humanitarian Crisis in Iraq: A brief to the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade (SCFAIT) – http://www.acp-cpa.ca/Iraqsanctions.htm
1991 Somali Civil War begins.
- Propaganda in the War in Somalia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_in_the_War_in_Somalia
December 3, 1992 – UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of UNOSOM I, the first coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.
- Text of Resolution of United Nations Security Council Resolution 733 [pdf] – http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/010/92/IMG/NR001092.pdf?OpenElement
- Text of Resolution of United Nations Security Council Resolution 746 [pdf] – http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/011/05/IMG/NR001105.pdf?OpenElement [pdf]
October 14, 1996 – Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) plead guilty, under the "1890 Sherman Act", to its involvement in the global price-fixing conspiracy for the amino acid "Lysine" between 1992 and 1995. In the plea agreement, ADM and three Asian lysine manufacturers admitted to three felonies: colluding on lysine prices, allocating the volume of lysine to be sold by each manufacturer and participating in meetings to monitor compliance of "cartel" members. When added to animal feed, the lysine amino acid helps animals, especially chickens, fatten up for slaughter more quickly, providing a boost to profits in an industry known for razor-thin profit margins. Unlike any other price-fixing conspiracy before or since, ADM's involvement in a global cartel was meticulously recorded by a mole inside the organization while the conspiracy was underway, offering an unprecedented level of insight into the nuts and bolts of an international white-collar crime syndicate. ADM was at the center of several international price-fixing conspiracies.
- ADM Execs Nailed on Price-Fixing, May Do Time Government Gets Watershed Convictions, But Company Still Dominates Lysine Market by Angela Wissman – Illinois Legal Times October, 1998 – http://pages.uoregon.edu/bruceb/lysine_l.htm
- THE FIX WAS IN AT ADM By John Greenwald Monday, Oct. 28, 1996 – http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985379,00.html
- Lysine: A Case Study in International Price-Fixing by John M. Connor, 1998 – http://nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/bibarticles/connor_lysine.pdf [pdf]
- Price-fixer to the world John K. Wilson – Archer Daniels Midland (NYSE: ADM) used to be known as, "The supermarket to the world," thanks to its ads on political talk shows. But after an FBI investigation in the 1990s, ADM pleaded guilty to fixing international prices on citric acid and lysine, paid a $100 million fine, and saw three of its top executives convicted and sent to prison.
The scandal devastated a politically influential company that had long been viewed as a success story. Founded a century ago to make linseed oil as Archer Daniels Linseed (it acquired Midland Linseed in 1923 to become ADM), the company began to lag in the 1960s. ADM offered the Andreas brothers, Lowell and Dwayne, 6 percent of the company to come in and revitalize it. The company's financial picture quickly turned around, and the Andreas family and its trusted friends — including president James Randall — have dominated ADM's executive ranks and its board of directors since then.
Much of ADM's profitability came from its former chairman and CEO, Dwayne Andreas, who was legendary for his political contacts. Contacts that proved crucial as ADM became the world's largest recipient of corporate welfare. With the help of a high cane-sugar tariff and support that costs the government $1.5 billion a year and consumers $3 billion annually (to protect the $3 billion high-fructose corn syrup market that ADM dominates), and the heavily subsidized and protected ethanol business (another ADM specialty), Dwayne's empire grew. http://www.bankrate.com/brm/news/investing/20001221c.asp?prodtype=grn
- ADM's lawsuit could hurt company Lubbock Avalanche-Journal Editorial Staff, 1996-09-19 – Experts say suing FBI mole in price-fixing probe could be legal blunder – http://lubbockonline.com/news/122996/adms.htm
- Tale of the Tapes by Susan Webber, September 25, 2000 – Kurt Eichenwald provides a masterful account of the ADM price-fixing scandal — with the help of a government informant. http://www.auroraadvisors.com/articles/2000-09_dailydeal.html
- ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND: PRICE-FIXER TO THE WORLD (Fourth Edition) by John M. Connor, December 2000 – http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/28664/1/sp00-11.pdf [pdf]
- Sweetener settlement for ADM 18-Jun-2004 – Ingredients supplier Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) said on Thursday that it had reached a $400 million (€333m) settlement in an anti-trust case that claimed the US firm conspired to fix the price of the food sweetener high fructose corn syrup used expansively in food and soft drink products. http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Business/Sweetener-settlement-for-ADM
December 3, 1996 – Former Top ADM Executives, Japanese Executive, Indicted in Lysine Price Fixing. Conspiracy Korean Company Also Charged: Agrees to Plead Guilty, Pay Fine and Cooperate with the Government's Investigation U.S. Department Of Justice – WASHINGTON — A Chicago federal grand jury indicted three former top Archer Daniels Midland Co. executives and one Japanese executive today for conspiring to fix prices and allocate sales in the lysine market worldwide, the Department of Justice announced. A Korean company also agreed to plead guilty to separate charges and pay a $1.25 million fine for its role in the conspiracy.
This is the third round of charges brought as a result of the Department's investigation into the food and feed additives industry. In October, ADM pleaded guilty and was sentenced to pay a $100 million criminal fine–the largest criminal antitrust fine ever–for its role in two international conspiracies to fix prices and allocate sales in the lysine and citric acid markets worldwide. http://www.justice.gov/atr/public/press_releases/1996/1030.htm
October 31, 1998 – Iraq Liberation Act of 1998; United States Congressional statement of policy calling for regime change in Iraq signed into law by President Bill Clinton and cited in October 2002 to argue for the authorization of military force against the Iraqi government.
- IRAQ LIBERATION ACT OF 1998: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-105publ338/html/PLAW-105publ338.htm
August 20, 1998 – U.S. launch cruise missiles at a targets in Afghanistan and destroy pharmaceutical manufacturing facility in Khartoum, Sudan
- Primer on the Embassy Bombings and the U.S. Strikes on Sudan and Afghanistan by Ben Snowdon and David Johnson – http://www.infoplease.com/spot/newsfacts-sudanstrikes.html
Generation Shift: Generation Z, aka: New Silent Generation, begins (2000/2001-Present)
Rise of the Information Age / Internet / dot com bubble / Digital Globalization.
April 11, 2002 – Failed CIA supported Venezuelan coup d'état attempt.
- American navy 'helped Venezuelan coup' – April 29, 2002 – The United States had been considering a coup to overthrow the elected Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez, since last June, a former US intelligence officer claimed yesterday.It is also alleged that the US navy aided the abortive coup which took place in Venezuela on April 11 with intelligence from its vessels in the Caribbean. Evidence is also emerging of US financial backing for key participants in the coup. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/29/venezuela.duncancampbell
- Venezuela coup linked to Bush team – April 21, 2002 – The failed coup in Venezuela was closely tied to senior officials in the US government, The Observer has established. They have long histories in the 'dirty wars' of the 1980s, and links to death squads working in Central America at that time. Washington's involvement in the turbulent events that briefly removed left-wing leader Hugo Chavez from power last weekend resurrects fears about US ambitions in the hemisphere.It also also deepens doubts about policy in the region being made by appointees to the Bush administration, all of whom owe their careers to serving in the dirty wars under President Reagan.One of them, Elliot Abrams, who gave a nod to the attempted Venezuelan coup, has a conviction for misleading Congress over the infamous Iran-Contra affair. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/21/usa.venezuela
July 2002 CIA's Special Activities Division teams enter Iraq.
- Operation Hotel California: The Clandestine War Inside Iraq – "What is the point of even having an intelligence service, since no one is listening to the field intelligence?" This rhetorical question from former CIA officer Charles "Sam" Faddis is one of two themes of Operation Hotel California, an account of the CIA-US Special Forces teams in Iraqi Kurdistan in advance of the opening of the Iraq War in 2003. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-54-no.-2/pdfs-vol.-54-no.-2/MattP-Hotel%20California-web.pdf [pdf]
October 16, 2002 – Iraq Resolution aka: Iraq War Resolution; joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.
- AUTHORIZATION FOR USE OF MILITARY FORCE AGAINST IRAQ RESOLUTION OF 2002 NOTE: Oct. 16, 2002 – [H.J. Res. 114] [107th Congress Public Law 243]: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ243/html/PLAW-107publ243.htm
- Israel, US, and Egypt back Fatah's fight against Hamas – May 25, 2007 – The Bush administration has spent most of its $84 million in aid to Palestinians to train an elite corps of Fatah-loyal fighters. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0525/p07s02-wome.html
- Bush sanctions 'black ops' against Iran – May 27, 2007 – President George W Bush has given the CIA approval to launch covert "black" operations to achieve regime change in Iran, intelligence sources have revealed.Mr Bush has signed an official document endorsing CIA plans for a propaganda and disinformation campaign intended to destabilise, and eventually topple, the theocratic rule of the mullahs.Under the plan, pressure will be brought to bear on the Iranian economy by manipulating the country's currency and international financial transactions.Details have also emerged of a covert scheme to sabotage the Iranian nuclear programme, which United Nations nuclear watchdogs said last week could lead to a bomb within three years. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1552784/Bush-sanctions-black-ops-against-Iran.html
- Bush Authorizes New Covert Action Against Iran May 22, 2007 – The CIA has received secret presidential approval to mount a covert "black" operation to destabilize the Iranian government, current and former officials in the intelligence community tell the Blotter on ABCNews.com. The sources, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the subject, say President Bush has signed a "nonlethal presidential finding" that puts into motion a CIA plan that reportedly includes a coordinated campaign of propaganda, disinformation and manipulation of Iran's currency and international financial transactions. http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2007/05/bush_authorizes/
June 7 – 15, 2007 – Battle of Gaza: Hamas and Fatah engage in military conflict in the Gaza Strip.
- The Gaza Bombshell – After failing to anticipate Hamas's victory over Fatah in the 2006 Palestinian election, the White House cooked up yet another scandalously covert and self-defeating Middle East debacle: part Iran-contra, part Bay of Pigs. With confidential documents, corroborated by outraged former and current U.S. officials, the author reveals how President Bush, Condoleezza Rice, and Deputy National-Security Adviser Elliott Abrams backed an armed force under Fatah strongman Muhammad Dahlan, touching off a bloody civil war in Gaza and leaving Hamas stronger than ever. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/04/gaza200804
February 2011 – Libyan Intervention Begins
- CIA Operatives Reportedly On The Ground In Libya – http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/30/ap-sources-cia-operatives-on-ground-libya_n_842881.html
- In Libya, CIA is gathering intelligence on rebels – http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/in-libya-cia-is-gathering-intelligence-on-rebels/2011/03/30/AFLyb25B_story.html
…currently updating on an ongoing and regular basis
Last updated: 06Dec2013
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