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In this section we will compile additional documentaries, research and data related to various historical, cyclical and ongoing blow-back triggers and events in Africa that are directly and/or indirectly associated with the Blowback, The Research and The Timelines sections.
Considering that this is a [pending draft] Repository of information, backgrounders, resources, references and sources about Africa, please note that as time moves forward this section will eventually be somewhat organized. Please remember, information is a contact sport, like hockey, so feel free to add contributions and relevant information as a comment below! Contact us if you would like to contribute to our collaborative efforts or would like to share/submit articles, data or additional content…
- War on Africa
…something or another
Betting the farm on hunger Robert Kennedy Last Modified: 28 Sep 2012 11:53 – Debate heats up whether financial speculation is spiking food prices and spelling disaster for millions of poor people.
Financial investors betting on the price of food are dangerously driving up prices, threatening millions of impoverished people in food-importing countries who will go hungry, critics warn.
But the issue of food speculation by banks, hedge and pension funds is a controversial one, and many observers say there is no evidence that gambling on food causes price increases and volatility.
Opponents are demanding that G-20 leaders take urgent action to halt agriculture commodity speculation, after summer drought ravaged US corn crops, and lower-than-expected wheat yields in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Activists say while nothing can be done about the effects of drought devastation on prices, the trade of agricultural financial products can – and must – be immediately halted.
About one billion people around the globe already go hungry. It is predicted the number will jump by 53 million by the end of 2012, according to the UN World Food Programme.
Countries in the Middle East and north and sub-Saharan Africa are most vulnerable to the latest global food-price spike, the third in five years. Some analysts are warning food riots – similar to those that erupted in 2008 and 2010 – could be on the horizon.
In just one year, maize prices have jumped by 174 per cent in Malawi and 129 per cent in Mozambique. Wheat prices have surged 52 per cent in Sudan since July 2011, according to the World Bank.
Financial speculation is “among the various drivers of increased price levels and volatility”, according to a recent release by three UN agencies.
Continue researching: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/09/2012911125854157194.html
The modern day mess in Africa began with colonization from outside sources, While it dates back to ancient times, the more familiar version dates to the 1800’s by way of the European “super powers” that were already under control of the central banksters of the time. Below we will cram a lot of stuff into a short summary, research as you choose.
Obviously the colonization of Africa included what we now know as North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia which is why there is so much animosity towards the west. It continued in full force during the “cold war” period but was presented as the Russians (USSR) vs the US (et all) in the form of covert operations, nation destabilization and by arming and funding proxy wars, also refereed to as the war vs the commies. For a good example, think Korea and Vietnam, Now things get really interesting because these “events” continued throughout the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s but the ramp ups and media propaganda focused on Central and South America.
These military interventions and wars were sold to the public as “protecting US interests” aka: Corporate interests. For examples think, Chile, Argentina, Panama, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, etc.
Now to expand this even further, fast forward a bit to 1976 China when a change in govt. opened the doors to the west. Then move up to approx 1979 when is all goes haywire, Iraq backe by the US attempts to invade Iran because the Shah who was backed by the US, was overthrown. Almost the same time the Soviets invaded Afghanistan which was being controlled by the US via proxies, most notably Bin laden.
Keep in mind that the modern “Kingdoms” of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, etc. were already, and still are, US proxy regimes. Now these events led to the rise of neo-con Reagan and neo-liberal, aka: trickle down, economics. The Reagan era picked up where the Nixon era left off and also seen the Red in Red China being removed and it became simply China, a new economic and trade partner.
To take it further forward, we have seen Afghanistan and Iraq being invaded by the US and it all goes from there and returns back to Africa, North Africa, the Middle East and back to Central Asia. Whew, that is it in a nutshell…
Back to the colonization of Africa, begin with this essay since it is the primary source of information contained on Wikipedia for the most part but search for the term “Colonisation of Africa” for more:
The IMF and US African Command (AFRICOM) Join Hands in the Plunder of the African Continent by Nile Bowie January 6, 2012 – Lagos Dissents Under IMF Hegemony
Nigeria: The Next Front for AFRICOM
On a recent trip to West Africa, the newly appointed managing director of the International Monetary Fund, Christine Lagarde ordered the governments of Nigeria, Guinea, Cameroon, Ghana and Chad to relinquish vital fuel subsidies. Much to the dismay of the population of these nations, the prices of fuel and transport have near tripled over night without notice, causing widespread violence on the streets of the Nigerian capital of Abuja and its economic center, Lagos. Much like the IMF induced riots in Indonesia during the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, public discontent in Nigeria is channelled towards an incompetent and self-serving domestic elite, compliant to the interests of fraudulent foreign institutions.
Although Nigeria holds the most proven oil reserves in Africa behind Libya, it’s people are now expected to pay a fee closer to what the average American pays for the cost of fuel, an exorbitant sum in contrast to its regional neighbours. Alternatively, other oil producing nations such as Venezuela, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia offer their populations fuel for as little as $0.12 USD per gallon. While Lagos has one of Africa’s highest concentration of billionaires, the vast majority of the population struggle daily on less than $2.00 USD. Amid a staggering 47% youth unemployment rate and thousands of annual deaths related to preventable diseases, the IMF has pulled the rug out from under a nation where safe drinking water is a luxury to around 80% of it’s populace.
Although Nigeria produces 2.4 million barrels of crude oil a day intended for export use, the country struggles with generating sufficient electrical power and maintaining its infrastructure. Ironically enough, less than 6% of bank depositors own 88% of all bank deposits in Nigeria. Goldman Sachs employees line its domestic government, in addition to the former Vice President of the World Bank, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, who is widely considered by many to be the de facto Prime Minister. Even after decades of producing lucrative oil exports, Nigeria has failed to maintain it’s own refineries, forcing it to illogically purchase oil imports from other nations. Society at large has not benefited from Nigeria’s natural riches, so it comes as no surprise that a severe level of distrust is held towards the government, who claims the fuel subsidy needs to be lifted in order to divert funds towards improving the quality of life within the country.
Like so many other nations, Nigerian people have suffered from a systematically reduced living standard after being subjected to the IMF’s Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP). Before a loan can be taken from the World Bank or IMF, a country must first follow strict economic policies, which include currency devaluation, lifting of trade tariffs, the removal of subsidies and detrimental budget cuts to critical public sector health and education services.
Continue researching: http://www.uruknet.com/?p=m84585
World Bank and Wall Street firms expropriating African land and displacing hundreds of thousands, as usual – http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=74&jumival=8260
Looting Nigeria’s OIL – http://www.modernghana.com/news/396616/1/the-looting-of-nigeria-big-oils-140-billion-a-year.html
Reasons to Oppose the IMF and World Bank – http://www.whisperedmedia.org/reasons.html
US Military Behind Africa News Websites by JASON STRAZIUSO Associated Press on 14-11-2012 – The website’s headlines trumpet al-Shabab’s imminent demise and describe an American jihadist fretting over insurgent infighting. At first glance it appears to be a sleek, Horn of Africa news site. But the site — sabahionline.com — is run by the U.S. military.
Continue researching: http://www.brussellstribunal.org/article_view.asp?id=582
Please note that we are currently updating this section and are focused upon the most pressing issues that are currently being ignored and/or overlooked in the MSM coverage. As time progresses, we will break this section down further to include additional backgrounders, timelines and info-graphics..
Te British established the Gold Coast Crown colony in 1874 over parts, but not all, of the country and by 1901, all of the Gold Coast was a British colony in West Africa that “gained” independence, the first African nation to do so, in 1957 forming modern day Republic of Ghana.
Prestige, Prudence and Public Opinion in the 1882 British Occupation of Egypt Dan Halvorson – Griffith Asia Institute – Griffith University – http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/downloaduriredirect?itemId=34630&bitstream=23525
- Suez Crisis: Key players BBC News Last Updated: Friday, 21 July 2006, 10:01 GMT 11:01 UK – The Suez Crisis began on 26 July 1956 when Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal. – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5195582.stm
- Egypt seizes Suez Canal BBC ON THIS DAY | July 26, 1956 – http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/26/newsid_2701000/2701603.stm
Libyan-style “democracy”: two years without Gaddafi Andrei Smirnov Feb 15, 2013 15:52 Moscow Time – Mass protests are sweeping across Libya as the country marks the second anniversary of the beginning of a civil war that ousted Muammar Gaddafi. Two years after the fall of the Gaddafi regime, no new constitution has been drafted.
The new authorities have obviously failed to maintain law and order. Crime is rampaging and popular discontent is on the rise. Prime Minister Ali Zeidan has shut the borders with neighboring Egypt and Tunisia from February 14 to 18 as a security precaution.
Though the anti-Gaddafi revolt erupted on February 17, the main celebrations will take place on the 15th . Airport security is being tightened. Meanwhile, Lufthansa and Austrian Airlines have suspended all flights to Libya until the 17th, citing “tensions on the grounds”. Earlier, Germany, France, Canada and other countries urged their citizens to immediately leave Benghazi over the imminent threat of terrorist attacks. Security is being tightened in the capital Tripoli and also in Benghazi where four U.S. diplomats were killed in a bloody raid on the U.S. consulate last September.
With anarchy and marauding flourishing in border areas where once strict law and order reigned under Gaddafi, most Libyans, particularly in the east, have been outraged by the authorities’ inaction. In addition to local extremists and “adventure seekers”, terrorists of all sorts, including groups of jihadists from Mali, have been pouring in. The “democracy” the West had once been so fervent in forcing upon Libya looks more like a medieval rule, says Director of the Cairo-based Java Center for Political Studies Rifaat Sayed Ahmad.
“NATO air strikes threw the once prospering country by African standards back into the Middle Ages, and still worse, they plunged it into a civil war. The West used military force to install an obedient yet unpopular regime unable to deal with the religious and tribal feud that is tearing the country apart. Libyan oil and gas – that was the main target of NATO’s military intervention in the name of the noble goal of freeing ordinary Libyans from Colonel Gaddafi’s dictatorship, as one French TV program put it.”
The unhappy outcome is hardly a surprise and had been foreseen by analysts even before the intervention began, says Russian political scientist Stanislav Tarasov.
Continue researching: http://english.ruvr.ru/2013_02_15/Libyan-style-democracy-two-years-without-Gaddafi/
Libya arrests suspected Christian missionaries By ESAM MOHAMED | Associated Press – Sat, Feb 16, 2013 – TRIPOLI, Libya (AP) — Four foreigners were arrested in Libya on suspicion of distributing books about Christianity and proselytizing, a Libyan police spokesman said on Saturday.
Police spokesman Hussein bin Hamid said the suspects were from South Africa, Egypt and South Korea, and one held both Swedish and U.S. nationality. The Swedish Foreign Ministry confirmed that a dual national Swedish-American citizen was arrested while traveling on a U.S. passport. The U.S. Embassy in Libya declined comment.
Spreading Christianity is a crime in the predominantly Muslim North African county.
The four were arrested in the eastern city of Benghazi on Tuesday and are under investigation for printing and distributing books that proselytize Christianity. Police said they found 45,000 books in their possession and that another 25,000 have already been distributed.
Bin Hamid said that embassy officials have visited them. He would not say where they are being held.
Last year, the International Committee of the Red Cross had to suspend its activities in Benghazi after assailants launched attacks on its offices. The aid group was accused by some in Libya of distributing Bibles and proselytizing.
Associated Press correspondent Jan Olsen in Copenhagen, Denmark contributed to this report.
Continue researching: http://news.yahoo.com/libya-arrests-suspected-christian-missionaries-180629722.html
The Grain Coast aka: “Pepper Coast”, is the name of a coastal area in western Africa, that includes present day Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire (“Ivory Coast”) and Liberia.
The Empire in Africa NewVideoDigital Uploaded on Oct 22, 2010 – The rebels who started the civil war in Sierra Leone 15 years ago wanted only one thing: to reclaim the richness of the country from foreign corporations in order to end the exploitation of its people. In response, the international community decided to wage a war on this country, with bombs, executions, torture, rigged elections and manipulation of the international media. This created one of the worst humanitarian disasters of the 20th century.
Continue researching: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N_srovvMLoA
Index to Archives Nationales du Mali –
Continue researching: http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/archives/anmindex.htm
Upper Senegal & Niger, 1898-1922 – Modern Mali, during the 19th century, was largely identical with the Tukulor Empire, ruled by Al-Haji Umar (-1864, succeeded by his son Ahmadu) and by Samori Toure (1870-1898), whose reign extended beyond the borders of Mali, into the Ivory Coast, Guinea and Burkina Faso.
Continue researching: http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/westafrica/uppersen.html
Mali – History – Early History to the End of Colonialism – Mali, officially Republic of Mali, independent republic (2005 est. pop. 12,292,000), 478,764 sq mi (1,240,000 sq km), the largest country in W Africa. Mali is bordered on the north by Algeria, on the east and southeast by Niger, on the south by Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire, and on the west by Guinea, Senegal, and Mauritania. Bamako is the capital and by far the largest city.
The Mali region has been the seat of extensive empires and kingdoms, notably those of Ghana (4th–11th cent.), Mali, and Gao. The medieval empire of Mali was a powerful state and one of the world’s chief gold suppliers; it attained its peak in the early 14th cent. under Mansa (Emperor) Musa (reigned c.1312–1337), who made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 laden with gold and slaves to proclaim Mali’s prosperity and power. During his rule Muslim scholarship reached new heights in Mali, and such cities as Timbuktu and Djenné (Jenne) became important centers of trade, learning, and culture.
The Mali empire was followed by the Songhai empire of Gao, which rose to great power in the late 15th cent. In 1590 the empire, already weakened by internal divisions, was shattered by a Moroccan army. The Moroccans, however, could not effectively dominate the vast region, which broke up into petty states. By the late 18th cent., the area was in a semianarchic condition and was subject to incursions by the Tuareg and Fulani.
The 19th cent. witnessed a great resurgence of Islam. The Tukolor empire of al-Hajj Umar (1794–1864) and the empire of Samori Touré (1870–98) emerged as Muslim states opposing French invasion of the region. By 1898 the French conquest was virtually complete; Mali, called French Sudan, became part of the Federation of French West Africa. A nationalist movement, spearheaded by trade unions and student groups, blossomed during the period between the two world wars. The Sudanese Union, a militantly anticolonial party, became the leading political force. Its leader, Modibo Keita, was a descendant of the Mali emperors.
Continue researching: http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/world/mali-history.html
Meddling in Mali by Ivan Eland on 06-11-2012 – The United States and France are concerned that Islamists have taken over northern Mali, and the two countries are heavily leaning on Abdelaziz Bouteflika, president of the neighboring regional power Algeria, to support an international invasion of Mali.
The United States is meddling in another internal civil war to prevent a “terrorist haven” from developing. This time it’s not in Somalia or Yemen but instead in the West African country of Mali. The United States and France are concerned that Islamists have taken over northern Mali, and the two countries are heavily leaning on Abdelaziz Bouteflika, president of the neighboring regional power Algeria, to support an international invasion of Mali. The American and French implication is that, if left unmolested, the Islamists in control of this territory will create a base for international Islamist terrorist operations. They back an invasion because they believe the government of Mali is incapable of retaking its own territory.
Continue researching: http://www.brussellstribunal.org/article_view.asp?id=529
France Controls Morocco, The Sultan Signs the Treaty Establishing a Protectorate. Special Cable to The New York Times March 31, 1912 – http://ottawapiskat.wordpress.com/chapters/harper-cpc-blowback/blowback-research/treaty-of-fez-nytimes-31mar1912/
The United Nations Failure in Southern Morocco: CSC 1997 – In June 1991, the United Nations sent a multinational military mission to stop the war between the State of Morocco and group of people called Polisario in the southern region formerly called the “Western Sahara”. The key problem for UN peace keeping was how to solve difficulties of implementating a political solution through a referendum. So the mission of the UN peace keeping operation was to restrain local security forces, identify and register voters, conduct the referendum, certify the results, and supervise the losing side’s withdrawal or disarmament 1. But from 1991 until now, the UN has failed to solve the conflict and conduct a referendum in the region. Even if this failure continues in the region and the UN leaves the territory, it will not likely result in a war, because Morocco now controls more than 90% of the land, and the Polisario doesn’t have any military support from the major countries that formally supported them (especially Algeria and Libya).
Continue researching: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1997/Said.htm
Slave Coast is the name of the coastal areas of present day Togo, Benin and Western Nigeria.
- Urbanism on West Africa’s Slave Coast Archaeology sheds new light on cities in the era of the Atlantic slave trade J. Cameron Monroe – http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/feature/urbanism-on-west-africas-slave-coast/1
The Kingdom of Dahomey became part of French West Africa in 1894. French rule lasted until August 1, 1960 when the “independent” country took the name Republic of Dahomey. On October 26, 1972, Commander Mathieu Kérékou and the Army overthrow the government in a successful coup d’état forming the People’s Republic of Benin (1972–1990)
It was later renamed the “People’s Republic of Benin” on November 30, 1975 after a successful coup d’etat in 1972 and again renamed the “Republic of Benin” on March 1, 1990.
Nigeria hit by three pirate attacks in eight days: agency By Joe Brock and Jonathan Saul ABUJA/LONDON | Thu Feb 14, 2013 12:38pm EST – (Reuters) – Pirates attacked three vessels off the coast of Nigeria in the space of eight days this month, killing one person, a maritime agency said, in a sign of worsening security off the coast of Africa’s biggest oil exporter.
Gunmen killed a crew member when they attacked a chemical tanker carrying out a ship-to-ship transfer at Lagos port on February 4 before a security team repelled the attackers, piracy watchdog the International Maritime Agency said in a report.
The tanker was the Dubai-managed Pyxis Delta and the crew member killed was a Filipino, security firm AKE said. The Nigerian navy declined to comment on the attack.
Piracy off the Nigerian coast and elsewhere in the Gulf of Guinea is on the rise. The coastline, rich in natural resources such as cocoa and metals, is second only to the waters off Somalia for the risk of pirate attacks, which drives up shipping and oil industry costs.
Propaganda in the War in Somalia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – Even before the beginning of the War in Somalia (2006-2009) there were significant assertions and accusations of the use of disinformation and propaganda tactics, classed as forms of information warfare, by various parties to shape the causes and course of the conflict. These include assertions of falsification of the presence or number of forces involved, exaggeration or minimization of the casualties inflicted or taken, influence or control of media outlets (or shutting them down), and other informational means and media to sway popular support and international opinion.
Low literacy rates in Somalia, estimated at between 17% and 19%, also greatly impact the effect of propaganda within the country.
A. S. Kanya-Forstner, The Conquest of the Western Sudan (Cambridge University Press, 1969). in the University of Delaware library. Notes © 2002 by Jim Jones , Ph.D. – SUMMARY – This is a detailed description of how the French Marines (naval soldiers) created a military empire in the Western Sudan. They were able to do this because they were the only effective instrument of French policy in a remote region, and because they operated at a time when fear of British strength, fear of Islamic jihad, the loss to Prussia and the weakness of the civilian government of the Third Republic made arguements about the security of Frenchmen in Africa compelling.
The opportunism of individual French soldiers aggravated the situation – particularly Faidherbe, Desbordes, Archinard and Combes. Various ministers supported their efforts, particularly Jauréguiberry and Delcassé. The empire they created was counter-productive to France’s “mission civiliatrice” and wreaked economic havoc on the area. That, plus consistent budget overruns, provoked parliament to control the military officers and finally, to replace them with a civilian administration.
Chapter (Begins on page)
I Introduction: the Colonial Army and the Western Sudan (1)
II The Background of the Conquest (22)
III The Revival of the Niger Plan, 1876-80 (55)
IV The Occupation of the Niger, 1880-83 (84)
V The Problems of Occupation, 1883-86 (113)
VI The Consolidation of the Sudan and the New African Policy (142)
VII The `Total Conquest’ of the Sudan, 1888-93 (174)
VIII The Civilian Administration of the Sudan, 1893-95 (215)
IX The Last Years of Military Rule, 1895-99 (237)
X Conclusion: French African Policy & Military Imperialism (263)
XI List of Sources (275)
XII Bibliography (279)
Continue researching: http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/archives/sec/kanya3.htm
Unsorted and Miscellaneous
(currently updating, but while we’re doing that…)
Remember, politics is a contact sport, like hockey, so please feel free to add quick contributions, observations and relevant information as a comment below or if you would like to collaborate some of the finer details and share other important stats and facts, set up a free WordPress account and let us know, post a comment below or e-mail us email@example.com!
One should consider this chapter, along with others in this series, as an on-the-fly pre-release version of a work-in-progress that may be utilized by other researchers and at some point, will be subdivided into smaller sub-chapters and topics. Feel free to provide additional information, links and resources as a comment below as we compile the data we have archived and published elsewhere. with this endeavour we are focused on building comprehensive timelines with important, little publicized and relevant details related to the profits generated via blow-back effects that are ultimately payed by you. We welcome you to continue reading the information below to gain a much broader perspective of how Central Banks, aka: Banksters, Investors aka: Robber Barons, create blow-back via agents/proxies/puppets within governments along with the self-interested aligned shills within the media, to escalate and profit from the ensuing and ongoing cyclical blow-back effects.
Then again you may begin to ponder and/or consider that “freedom and democracy” as envisioned by globalists is the exact opposite and that the Kings, Presidents, Prime Ministers, Legislators, etc., are nothing more than wardens in a finely tuned open concept Prison Industrial Complex based system based upon lies, fraud and deception. At any point in time one is either, confined within a “free state” or confined within an “occupied state” or one is simply a “disposable slave”. In any scenario, one is ultimately owned and/or controlled by the interests of global investors, aka: “Robber Barons” via the “Military Industrial Complex” which in turn is funded by global “banksters” via Central Bank coffers with the associated infrastructure costs, (blow-back), passed down to tax-payers, which creates “debt slaves”. These “investments” then secure new, neo-liberal, markets and opportunities for Big Oil, Big Ore, Big Agra and Big Pharma with the associated infrastructure costs, (blow-back), passed down to tax-payers, which in turn supports the Medical Industrial Complex and Child Welfare Industrial Complex, with those associated infrastructure costs, (blow-back), passed down to tax-payers. All while the profits exponentially flow off-shore to the investors.
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